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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 182-187

Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

1 Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Government Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, Awadh Dental College, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India
4 Department of Prosthodontics, Mallareddy Institute of Dental Sciences, Suraram, India
5 Department of Pedodontics, Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Bharat Sankhla
Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.142024

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Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

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