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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 103-107

Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia

1 Department of Periodontics, Karnavati School of Dentistry, Gujarat, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Karnavati School of Dentistry, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Periodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Prosthodontics, Karnavati School of Dentistry, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Khushboo Desai
Karnavati School of Dentistry, 907/A, Gandhinagar - 382 422, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.155734

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Objective: The aim of the present case-control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women were assessed, followed by retrieval of their demographic and medical data from the medical records. Based on the medical records, 80 women were excluded from the study, leaving 1240 females as the eligible sample for the study. The women were divided into control group (1120 non-preeclamptic women who gave birth to infants with adequate gestational age) and case group (120 preeclamptic women). Logistic regression analysis revealed that primiparity and maternal periodontitis were the two significant variables causing preeclampsia. Further analysis was carried out by matching the two groups for primiparity to find the significance of maternal periodontitis. Maternal periodontitis was defined as PD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥3 mm at the same site in at least four teeth. Results: The results showed that maternal periodontitis (odds ratio 19.8) was associated with preeclampsia. Maternal periodontitis also remained associated with preeclampsia after matching for primiparity, which was another significant confounding factor in the study (odds ratio 9.33). Conclusion: Maternal periodontitis is a risk factor associated with preeclampsia, emphasizing the importance of periodontal care in prenatal programs.

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