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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 192-196

Analysis of sugars and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Saudi Arabia with a brief review on their dental implications


1 Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Restrorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Ali Mohamed Idris
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, Jazan
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.197190

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Objective: To determine the amount of sugar and pH in commercially available soft drinks in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. This was further compared with their labeled values in order to inform the regulations. The effects of these drinks on teeth is reviewed. Materials and Methods: Ten brands of popular soft drinks including 6 regular carbonated drinks and 4 energy drinks were obtained from the local markets. Their pH was determined using a pH meter. The amount of total sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography (using Dionex ICS 5000 ion chromatography) at the Saudi Food and Drug Authority. Descriptive statistics was done to obtain the mean and standard deviation. Intergroup comparison was performed using independent t-test, and the labeled and estimated values within the group were compared with paired t-test. Results: The labeled and estimated sugar in energy drinks (14.3 ± 0.48 and 15.6 ± 2.3, respectively) were higher than the carbonated drinks (11.2 ± 0.46 and 12.8 ± 0.99), which was statistically significant. In addition, there was a significant difference in the concentration of glucose in energy drinks (5.7 ± 1.7) compared to carbonated drinks (4.1 ± 1.4). The pH of these drinks ranged from 2.4 to 3.2. The differences between the estimated and labeled sugar in carbonated drinks showed statistical significance. Mild variation was observed in total sugar, glucose, fructose, and sucrose levels among different bottles of the same brand of these drinks. Conclusion: The low pH and high sugar content in these drinks are detrimental to dental health. Comparison of the estimated sugar with their labeled values showed variation in most of the brands. Preventive strategies should be implemented to reduce the health risks posed by these soft drinks.


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