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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-35

Oral Manifestations in HIV-TB Co- infected Patients and Their Correlation with CD4 Count in Telangana State, India

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Panineeya Mahavidyalaya Institute of Dental Sciences, Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashalata Gannepalli
Flat No. 1037, Block No. 9, Manasarovar Heights, Phase 3, Manovikas Nagar, Secunderabad 500015, Telangana.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_448_18

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Aims and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related oral lesions are often an early finding, and they reflect the underlying immunosuppression, and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection can have further deteriorating effect. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical and oral presentations of patients coinfected with HIV–TB, correlating with various parameters such as the type of TB with CD4 cell count, the type of TB with oral manifestations, site of the lesion, oral manifestations with CD4 cell counts, age, and gender. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among selected 200 patients coinfected with HIV–TB, registered at Gandhi Medical College, Hyderabad, Telangana, India, and demographic data, CD4 count, diagnosis of TB, and clinical presentation of TB were correlated with site, age, gender, and the type of lesions in the oral cavity. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, (IBM SPSS), version 20 (Chicago, IL, USA), with the chi-square test, and the significant P value for all the parameters was considered as <0.05. Results: A total of 200 patients with HIV–TB coinfection, who presented with oral lesions of 258 coinfected cases, were examined. Among which, 129 patients were with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), 61 patients with extrapulmonary TB, 2 patients with disseminated TB, and 8 patients with PTB and pneumonia. There were multiple oral manifestations involving different sites of oral cavity, oral candidiasis (28.5%), angular cheilitis (24.5%), linear gingival erythema (21.5%), oral hairy leukoplakia (1.5%), melanotic pigmentation (29.0%), ulcers (20.0%), depapillation of tongue (26.5%), lobulated tongue (12.0%), hairy tongue (11.5%), and papules (10.0%). The correlation of the type of TB with CD4 cell count, oral lesions with the type of TB in tongue, labial mucosa, and palate was significant. Conclusion: A total of 77.5% patients coinfected with HIV–TB had shown oral manifestations emphasizing that the presence of oral lesions can be considered as a strong indicator of coinfection. The oral lesions might be used as a clinical indicator or screening mechanism in patients who were HIV seropositive for TB coinfection and should be necessarily evaluated for TB.

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