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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 207-215

Is Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) valid for the Indian population?—A psychometric study

Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Elbe Peter
Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental College, Kottayam, Kerala.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_443_20

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Objectives: A culturally adapted and validated Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) inventory helps to reliably compare patient perceptions among different populations. The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) evaluates the impact of dental aesthetics on OHRQoL. This study aimed to develop a regional version of PIDAQ (PIDAQMal) for the Indian population and to assess differences in perceptions due to malocclusion in different population groups. Materials and Methods: PIDAQMal was derived through the translation process and pilot-tested to assess test–retest reliability. Psychometric properties were tested on 285 subjects (31.2% males, 68.8% females; age range 18–25 years). Normative treatment need was assessed using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN)-Dental Health Component and subjective assessment using IOTN-Aesthetic Component (AC) and Perception of Occlusion Scale (POS). PIDAQMal mean domain scores were compared with those of the previously validated versions to assess difference in perceptions. Results: Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were good (Cronbach’s α = 0.83–0.88; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.74–0.91). IOTN-AC and POS scores showed significant correlation with PIDAQMal scores ensuring convergent validity (P < 0.001). Discriminant validity was confirmed by statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) in PIDAQMal scores between subjects with no treatment need and moderate/definite need. Factor analysis derived four domains with one item showing cross-loading. Difference in mean domain scores among the previously validated versions of PIDAQ confirmed socio-cultural differences in perceptions due to malocclusion. Conclusion: PIDAQMal was found to be reliable and valid for the Indian subjects and can be used as a condition-specific OHRQoL measure. Socio-cultural differences in perceptions were brought to light using the translated scale.

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