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REVIEW ARTICLES
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 490-502

Common risk factor approach to limit noncommunicable diseases and periodontal disease—the molecular and cellular basis: A narrative review


1 Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Amrita School of Dentistry, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Lakshmi Puzhankara
Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_109_21

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Introduction: The link between periodontal disease and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) has been the subject of major research over the past several years. The primary objective of this review is to understand the cellular and molecular components that link common risk factors (exposure) in adult patients (population) with periodontal disease and other NCDs (outcome). The secondary objective is to interpret from existing literature the possibility of identifying the molecular plausibility of the Common Risk Factor Approach (CRFA). Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for all published articles pertaining to the molecular and cellular basis of the risk factors between periodontal diseases and major NCDs. Data from all randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials, cross-sectional studies, case-control, cohort studies, literature, and systematic reviews were included. Results: Periodontal pathogens, stress, obesity, smoking, and dietary factors are some of the common risk factors between periodontal disease and NCDs. Conclusion: Understanding the molecular and cellular link of common risk factors between NCDs and periodontal disease would ensure the application of CRFA. The CRFA implies that controlling the risk factors associated with NCDs can have an incredible positive impact on regulating many chronic conditions, which would extend to periodontal health also.


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