Association between periodontal disease and the risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality: A systematic review
Daniel Alonso Kim Espinoza-Espinoza1, Julissa Amparo Dulanto-Vargas1, Oswaldo Andreé Cáceres-LaTorre1, Fiorella Estefanie Lamas-Castillo2, Carlos Flores-Mir3, Luis Adolfo Cervantes-Ganoza4, Carlos López-Gurreonero5, Marysela Irene Ladera-Castañeda6, César Félix Cayo-Rojas7
1 Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de San Martín de Porres, Lima 15084, Perú
2 Dental School Connecticut, University of Connecticut, USA
3 Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
4 Faculty of Stomatology, Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, Lima 15084, Peru
5 School of Stomatology, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru
6 Academic Program of Stomatology, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Lima e Ica 15066, Peru; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Postgraduate School, “Grupo de Investigación Salud y Bienestar Global” and Faculty of Dentistry, Lima 15084, Peru
7 Academic Program of Stomatology, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Lima e Ica 15066, Peru
César Félix Cayo-Rojas
Academic Program of Stomatology, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Av. Jose Antonio Lavalle s/n (Ex Hacienda Villa), Chorrillos, Lima.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the world’s healthcare systems. Studies have identified how the COVID-19 infections are linked to several co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal and pulmonary disease. It is known that periodontal disease (PD) shares the same risk factors. Moreover, both diseases are characterized by an exaggerated immune response. The aim of the study was to investigate the available evidence of a potential association between PD and the risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and ProQuest were searched. Studies that assess the association between PD and the risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality were eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers performed the selection of articles and data extraction. The New Castle Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of the selected studies, and the GRADE system was used to evaluate the level of confidence to support the conclusions. Results: Only two studies met the eligibility criteria. One study had a low risk of bias, whereas the other had a high risk of bias. Conclusion: The level of confidence in the available evidence is very low. A close association between periodontitis and the risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality can neither be supported nor refuted.