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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 644-651

Comparative analysis of change in pH, oral health status, and the count of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in the oral cavity in patients with gastroenteral diseases using saliva: A pilot study


1 Student, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
6 Department of Gastro-enterology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Sangeeta Umesh Nayak
Department of Periodontology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_105_21

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Background: Seventy million people are affected by gastroenteral (GI) disturbances throughout the world. Oral cavity possesses various bacteria that remain as healthy commensals or turn pathogenic due to shift of balance with disturbances in health, which is reflected in the oral cavity too. Studies have shown a possible oro-systemic link. This study aimed at assessing the effect of GI disease on oral health comparing levels of pH, microbiological counts, and oral health status between test and control groups. Materials and Methods: This pilot study consisted of two groups: test group containing 14 participants (GI disease) and control group (healthy) containing 3 participants. Two saliva samples were collected per patient. One sample was inoculated onto Mitis Salivarius and Rugose agar plates at 37oC in the CO2 incubator for 2 days. The second sample was used for recording pH. Parameters such as decayed, missing, and filled teeth, plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical loss of attachment were also recorded. The results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Regression analysis was applied to predict the three-microbe culture based on the pH and GI disease. Results: The oral health parameters showed a higher number of missing teeth, higher bleeding on probing, higher values of plaque and gingival index, a higher amount of clinical loss of attachment, and acidic pH of saliva in the test group. Microbiological analysis showed more Streptococcus mutans in the control group (7,500–10,000 cfu/mL), with a mean of 8,833.33±1,258.31 cfu/mL; S. salivarius was more in the test group (2,000–25,000 cfu/mL) with a mean of 15,866.67±6,697.76 cfu/mL. Candida was seen only in the test group (2,166.67±2,549.51 cfu/mL) and absent in the control group. Lactobacillus was absent in both the groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests the relation between oral health and GI diseases. Hence, saliva could be used as an easy, non-invasive biomarker to analyze the gastroenteric status of the patient.






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