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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 475-487

Markers, pathways, and current evidence for periodontitis-associated insulin resistance: A narrative review

1 Department of Periodontology, Saraswati Dental College & Hospital, Lucknow, India
2 Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Meenakshi University, Chennai, India
3 Maktoum Bin Hamdan Dental University College, Dubai, UAE
4 Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
5 College of Allied Health Sciences, Sri Venkateshwaraa University (State Private University), Chennai, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jaideep Mahendra
Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, Meenakshi University, Chennai
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_92_22

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Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present paper is to provide a narrative review of the markers and pathways of periodontitis-associated insulin resistance (IR). Materials and Methods: Research papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2000 to 2021 were searched systematically in Online Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and MedLine/PubMed database. The medical subject headings (MeSH) terms used for literature search were “diabetes AND periodontal disease,” “diabetes AND periodontitis,” “inflammation AND insulin resistance,” “Insulin resistance AND periodontal disease,” and “insulin resistance AND periodontitis.” Manual search for applicable work in review article peer-reviewed print journals, and latest editions of standard textbooks of pharmacology and pathology were searched for updated additional information. Relevant papers in English language on the topic and abstracts of pertinent articles after excluding the duplicates, animal studies, and in-vitro studies were also scrutinized thoroughly and finally included as required in this narrative review. Results: Literature search in MedLine/PubMed with MeSH words mentioned above revealed 4,621, 4,993, 19,349, 414, and 434 papers, respectively. Seven out of 13 systematic reviews and a total of 18 randomized clinical trials to evaluate periodontitis-induced IR were short-listed to update current evidences. The current literature in the past two decades has evaluated the effect of periodontal therapy on various type-2 diabetes (T2D) biomarkers following periodontal therapy. These indicators of periodontal disease activity and surrogate biomarkers of T2D in periodontitis may be an important diagnostic tool for the early prediction of complications due to IR. This increased systemic burden of proinflammatory cytokines by periodontitis can be reduced by periodontal therapy, thus improving the patient’s overall systemic condition. Conclusion: The inflammatory response in periodontitis is characterized by dysregulated secretion of host-derived mediators of inflammation and tissue breakdown that may lead to IR. It can be comprehended that periodontal disease is a recognized amendable risk factor for T2D.

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