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Prevalence and risk factors for ECC among preschool children from India along with the need of its own CRA tool- A systematic review


1 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Dr. Z.A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Dr. Gerald Niznick College of Dentistry. Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
3 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Dr. Gerald Niznick College of Dentistry and Department of Pediatric and Child Health and Community Health Sciences, Max Rady, College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, Children’s Hospital Research Institute of University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Correspondence Address:
Saima Yunus Khan,
Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Dr. Z.A. Dental College, Aligarh Muslim University
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_56_22

Introduction: Caries in the deciduous dentition of children under six years of age is termed as early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is prevalent among Indian children and identifying modifiable risk factors is important for prevention. This systematic review was undertaken to describe the burden of ECC in India, its prevalence, associated risk factors along with its repercussions on childhood health. Materials and Methods: A search was conducted for published Indian studies on ECC through electronic databases and complemented with hand search. The protocol for the present systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (Ref No. CRD42022306234) Care was taken to include studies which could represent all parts of India- Central, North, South, East and West. Included papers were reviewed for prevalence of ECC and reported risk factors. Results: Overall 37 studies on ECC in India were identified relating to prevalence, 11 reported risk factors and two reported on the association between severe ECC and nutritional health and well-being. The prevalence of ECC in India in these studies varied from16% to 92.2%. This systematic review revealed that ECC is prevalent among Indian children and highlights the need of preventive intervention and early risk assessment by its own caries risk assessment (CRA) tool. Occurrence seems to be firmly connected with age, snacking frequency, feeding and oral hygiene habits and with social determinants of health including parental education level, low socioeconomic status and number of siblings.


    
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