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Depression, anxiety and stress associated with fear of COVID-19 in Peruvian dental students: A multivariate analysis with 12 sociodemographic factors


1 “Grupo de Investigación Salud y Bienestar Global”, Postgraduate School, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima, Peru
2 School of Dentistry, Universidad Privada Norbert Wiener, Lima, Peru
3 Postgraduate School, Universidad Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, Lima, Peru
4 School of Stomatology, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Lima, Peru
5 School of Stomatology, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru
6 “Grupo de Investigación Salud y Bienestar Global”, Postgraduate School, Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima, Peru; School of Stomatology, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Lima, Peru

Correspondence Address:
César F Cayo-Rojas,
School of Stomatology, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, José Antonio Lavalle Avenue s/n (Ex Hacienda Villa); Chorrillos, Lima 15066
Peru
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_295_21

Aim: Excessive fear of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in dental students could cause mood disorders, especially if there are factors in the environment that generate feelings of anxiety or uncertainty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fear of COVID-19 and its association with depression, anxiety, and stress in Peruvian dental students according to their sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: This analytical, observational, and cross-sectional study was conducted in 398 dental students of a public university in the Peruvian capital during April 2021 to July 2021. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale—21 items was used to diagnose depression, anxiety, and stress. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale was used to detect fear of COVID-19. The Pearson’s chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. In addition, a logit model using odds ratio (OR) was performed to evaluate depression, anxiety, and stress of students with the associated factors: fear of COVID-19 and 12 sociodemographic variables (gender, age group, marital status, year of study, origin, companion, living with vulnerable people, history of mental illness, history of COVID-19, loss of close relatives due to COVID-19, occupation, and area of residence). A significance level of P < .05 was considered. In addition, predictive models were developed for the variables depression, anxiety, and stress, considering all possible significant causes. Results: The prevalence of fear of COVID-19, depression, anxiety, and stress was 19.6%, 36.2%, 40.7%, and 19.6%, respectively. According to the adjusted logit model, students who had fear of COVID-19 had OR = 2.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62–4.64), OR = 5.59 (95% CI: 3.14–9.97), and OR = 3.31 (95% CI: 1.88–5.83) for developing depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. In addition, those who reported history of mental illness were four times more likely to develop depression (OR = 4.02, 95% CI: 1.96–8.25) and anxiety (OR = 4.50, 95% CI: 2.06–9.82), whereas those living with people vulnerable to COVID-19 were twice as likely to develop stress (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.16–3.66). Conclusion: The highest prevalence of mood disorders among dental students was anxiety. In addition, those who were afraid of COVID-19 had three times the probability of developing depression and stress, and five times the probability of developing anxiety. On the other hand, the most influential factor in the development of depression and anxiety was history of mental illness, whereas the factor of living with vulnerable people was the most influential factor in the development of stress.


    
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    -  Castro-Pérez Vargas AM
    -  Céspedes-Porras J
    -  Echeverri-Junca LH
    -  Córdova-Limaylla NE
    -  López-Gurreonero C
    -  Castro-Mena MJ
    -  Cayo-Rojas CF
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