Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2021  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 294--306

Golden standard and golden proportion of maxillary anterior teeth among Saudi population in Makkah


Mohamed Fattouh Abdallah1, Omer H Alamoudi3, Abdullah Muneer Ali3, Raian A Marzogi3, Mohammed A Bafaraj3, Wahdan Mohammed Abdelghany Elkwatehy2 
1 Fixed Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt; Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Alqura University, Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Alqura University, Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Department of Pediatric, Dental Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Assoc .Prof. Wahdan Mohammed Abdelghany Elkwatehy
Department of Pediatric, Dental Public Health and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura.
Egypt

Background: Maxillary anterior teeth are important in achieving optimum aesthetics, Different methods are used to calculate their dimension: as golden standard (GS) to measure Width/Height (W/H) of anterior teeth and Golden Proportion (GP) to measure their perceived widths. Researchers had reported on GS and GP in different populations. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the occurrence of GS and GP of maxillary anterior teeth among the Saudi population in Makkah. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 participants (2304 teeth) were included in this study; photographs were taken by using a digital camera at a fixed distance and saved on a personal computer; the perceived mesio-distal widths and occluso-gingival heights of the maxillary anterior teeth were measured; GS was calculated from W/H of upper central incisors (W11/H11 and W21/H21); and GP was calculated from width of canines/laterals (W13/W12 and W23/W22) and laterals/centrals (W12/W11 and W22/W21). The normal range of GS was considered between 75% and 85%, whereas the normal range of GP was considered between 55% and 65%. Data were analyzed by using suitable statistical tests, and p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Both GS and GP were compared in relation to gender, race, and shape of the face. Results: There were 43% of GS ratios, 14% of GP of canines/laterals, and 34% of GP ratios of laterals/centrals that were within the normal range. There were no significant differences between GS of males and females (p=0.512) as well as among different races (0.137), whereas there were significant differences among different face shapes (p=0.001). For GP of canines/laterals, there were significant differences between males and females (p=0.000), different races (p=0.000), and different face shapes (p=0.001). For GP of laterals/centrals; there were no significant differences between males and females (p=0.216) whereas there were significant differences among different races (p=0.000) and different face shapes (p=0.007). Conclusion: The GS was 85% among the Saudi population in Makkah and it was more prevalent than other golden measures. The GP was 77.5 for canines/laterals and 65.8 for laterals/centrals, and their frequencies were very low. Personal characteristics and dento–facial specifications should be considered to obtain maximum aesthetics.


How to cite this article:
Abdallah MF, Alamoudi OH, Ali AM, Marzogi RA, Bafaraj MA, Elkwatehy WM. Golden standard and golden proportion of maxillary anterior teeth among Saudi population in Makkah.J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent 2021;11:294-306


How to cite this URL:
Abdallah MF, Alamoudi OH, Ali AM, Marzogi RA, Bafaraj MA, Elkwatehy WM. Golden standard and golden proportion of maxillary anterior teeth among Saudi population in Makkah. J Int Soc Prevent Communit Dent [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 11 ];11:294-306
Available from: https://www.jispcd.org/article.asp?issn=2231-0762;year=2021;volume=11;issue=3;spage=294;epage=306;aulast=Abdallah;type=0