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   2013| January-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 26, 2013

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Oral health related quality of life
Darshana Bennadi, C. V. K. Reddy
January-June 2013, 3(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115700  PMID:24478972
Diseases and disorders that damage the mouth and face can disturb well-being and his self-esteem. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) is a relatively new but rapidly growing notion. The concept of OHRQOL can become a tool to understand and shape not only the state of clinical practice, dental research and dental education but also that of community at large. There are different approaches to measure OHRQOL; the most popular one is multiple item questionnaires. OHRQOL should be the basis for any oral health programme development. Moreover, research at the conceptual level is needed in countries where OHRQOL has not been previously assessed, including India.
  84 17,504 2,050
Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India
Fotedar Shailee, M Sogi Girish, R Sharma Kapil, Pruthi Nidhi
January-June 2013, 3(1):44-50
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115715  PMID:24478980
Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.
  16 4,917 588
Tobacco: Its historical, cultural, oral, and periodontal health association
Shanu Mishra, MB Mishra
January-June 2013, 3(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115708  PMID:24478974
This article provides information on the origin of tobacco and its subsequent spread throughout the world. In the era of the migration of communities, tobacco use gradually gained access and subsequently migrated along with the migrants, establishing in different locations. Probably at that time people were unaware of the health hazards and were using tobacco in treating certain ailments. Much has been known and written about tobacco in the context of oral and general health hazards but little has been explored and is known to many about where from and how this plant, which is now used in various forms, and speading widely. In what form, where, and how it had been served in religious rituals and considered for treatment or remedy of certain ailments in those days could not certainly be known. In the 21 st century, people are considering hazardous tobacco as beneficial for their teeth, good for concentration of mind, and something which keeps them engaged. Even many professionals, though knowing the deleterious effects, are still using tobacco and gutkha in one or the other form. This article has been designed to revive the awareness for health hazards of tobacco and similar products. A pilot project questionnaire survey comprising this subject involving the educated mass has already been started and will be produced after analysis of data in part II of this paper.
  8 8,942 941
Comparative evaluation of a herbal mouthwash (Freshol) with chlorhexidine on plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation, and salivary Streptococcus mutans growth
Shivika Mehta, Sudha Pesapathy, Madonna Joseph, Prabhat K Tiwari, Saurabh Chawla
January-June 2013, 3(1):25-28
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115717  PMID:24478976
Introduction: Plaque accumulation and oral microorganisms are the main predisposing factors to various orodental infections and targeting these, therefore, can prove to be an effective way of combating these diseases. Herbal extracts have been of particular interest these days owing to various side effects associated with conventional modes of treatment. Aims and Objectives: The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy of a commercially available homeopathic mouthwash with chlorhexidine on plaque status, gingival status, and salivary Streptococcus mutans count. Materials and Methods: Total sample of 55 children, aged 8-14 years, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (35) and Group B (20) were given 10 mL of test mouthwash "Freshol" and chlorhexidine respectively during phases 1 and 3 of the clinical trial which was of 10 days each. Phase 2 of 14 days in between was the washout period during which no mouthwash was given. Result: Freshol was found to be better than chlorhexidine in reducing the salivary mutans streptococci count and equieffective to chlorhexidine in altering plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: Herbal alternatives can prove to be an effective and safe alternative to conventional modes of treatment.
  7 9,089 628
A study of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to dental aesthetic index among school children of a hilly state of India
Deepak Chauhan, Vinod Sachdev, Tripti Chauhan, Kamal K Gupta
January-June 2013, 3(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115706  PMID:24478978
Background: The documentation of magnitude of malocclusion in terms of prevalence and severity has not been done till date in Himachal Pradesh, India. Aims: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs (OTNs) among 9-and 12-year-old school children by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) in the state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1188 children from randomly selected schools. The survey was done according to the Oral Health Assessment Form (modified). DAI was used to assess the severity of malocclusion, along with collection of demographic data. Results: The overall prevalence of malocclusion was 12.5% and required orthodontic treatment, whereas 87.5% did not require treatment. A severe malocclusion for which treatment was highly desirable was recorded in 3.1%; 8% had a definite malocclusion for which treatment was elective. Only about 1.3% had a handicapping malocclusion that needed mandatory treatment. Almost equal proportions of males and females were affected with malocclusion with the means 20 ± 4.6 and 19.9 ± 4.9, respectively ( P < 0.641). The prevalence and severity of malocclusion was more in 12-year age group than in 9-year age group ( P = 0.002**). There was an increase in the proportion of malocclusion among older children: In 12-year age group, 15.7% with mean 20.5 ± 5.1 and in 9-year-old children, 8.9% with the mean 19.3 ± 4.1 were in the need of orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: Severity and treatment needs, both are important factors in public health planning.
  7 5,250 549
Correlating dental caries with oral bacteria and the buffering capacity of saliva in children in Madinah, Saudi Arabia
Ahmed Bhayat, Mohammad Sami Ahmad, Tamer Hifnawy, Mohammed Saad Mahrous, Hisham Al-Shorman, Layla Abu-Naba'a, Hala Bakeer
January-June 2013, 3(1):38-43
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115712  PMID:24478979
Introduction: Caries is associated with high counts of mutans streptococci (MS), lactobacillus (LB), and a low saliva buffering capacity (BC). No study using odds ratios (OR) has correlated caries and these factors and no similar study has been done in Saudi Arabia before. Objectives: To determine: The prevalence of caries, the number of colony forming units (CFUs) of MS and LB, the saliva buffering capacity (BC) and the relationship between these factors. Materials and Methods: This was an analytical cross sectional study on children from Madinah. Caries was recorded using dmft/DMFT (decayed, missing, filled teeth). The scores for MS and LB and the BC of saliva was calculated using the Caries Risk Test (CRT)® . Results: A total of 316 students were examined; two-thirds (62%) were female and 25% were caries free. Saliva was collected from 235 participants and the majority had high MS and LB scores (66 and 71%, respectively) while 25% had a low saliva BC. The odds for those who had high LB and MS CFUs, were 9 and 4 times more at risk to developing dental caries and those with a low BC had significantly more caries ( P = 0.03). The likelihood for those having severe caries and high counts of LB and MS was 25 ( P < 0.01) and 6 ( P = 0.042) times greater, respectively, compared to those with no or mild caries. Those with multiple risk factors were more likely to have caries compared to those with single or no risk factors present. Conclusions: The prevalence of caries was relatively high and many respondents had greater than 10 5 CFUs/ml of MS and LB. Almost all with a low BC had severe caries. There was a strong correlation between high MS, high LB, and low BC and the high prevalence of caries; hence the combination of these factors could be confidently used to predict caries in this population.
  7 4,170 433
A substantive review on tobacco use among school-going adolescents in India
Anitha R Sagarkar, Roshan M Sagarkar, Kashinath C Arabbi, Shivakumar M Shivamallappa
January-June 2013, 3(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115704  PMID:24478973
Tobacco use among the adolescents in india is believed to be on an increase. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out to summarize these studies. Several electronic databases were searched, supplemented by screening reference lists, smoking-related websites, and contacting experts. Selection, extraction, and quality assessments were carried out by one or two independent reviewers. The focus was on studies conducted on the school-going children in india and discussed in a global perspective. A narrative review was carried out. Many of the studies lacked sufficient power to estimate precise risks associated with the study subjects, as it mainly involved questionnaire studies. Studies were often designed to investigate tobacco use, but many had major methodological limitations including poor control and imprecise measurements of exposure. Studies in india showed a high risk of major health-related illness and several forms of cancers such as oro-pharyngeal cancers associated with the chewing form of tobacco. Studies from other regions and of other cancer types were not consistent. Tobacco use is increasing among the adolescents and has become an persistent issue that is usually carried over to their adulthood. In india, there is a stringent need for awareness creating oral health education programs in the school and college premises.
  5 5,855 526
A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene practices, oral health status, and behavior between graduate and post-graduate dentists of North India: An epidemiological survey
Maan Surinder Singh, Aaswin Kaur Tuli
January-June 2013, 3(1):19-24
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115713  PMID:24478975
Objectives: The present study was carried out to compare oral hygiene practices, oral health status and behavior of graduate and postgraduate dentists of North India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 727 dentists (446 graduate i.e., Group A and 281 post graduate i.e., Group B) through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire covered oral hygiene regimen, adverse oral habits, information regarding dental visits and dental treatment. Results: Results showed less than adequate oral hygiene practices among both the groups with more so in the graduate group (P ≤ 0.05). Very few dentists in both the groups reported any adverse oral habit. A more positive (P ≤ 0.05) attitude towards regular dental check up and dental treatment was seen in post-graduate dentists when compared to graduates. Conclusion: Very few dentists in both the groups followed ideal dental hygiene regimen. Dentists are the role models for the society as far as oral health is concerned; hence they need to be more responsible and lay more stress on their daily regimen and improve the scenario.
  3 3,995 386
Evaluation of the use of a peppermint mouth rinse for halitosis by girls studying in Tehran high schools
Roza Haghgoo, Farid Abbasi
January-June 2013, 3(1):29-31
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.115702  PMID:24478977
Background and Aim: Oral malodor is one of the most common complaints among dental patients. It often creates serious personal and social embarrassment for the afflicted individual. Therefore, a dentist must be able to diagnose the etiology of halitosis and treat it or refer an individual to a specialist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of halitosis and the effect of a peppermint mouth rinse on it. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two steps. At the first step, in a cross-sectional study, 504 students who were 14-18 years old were examined to define the students who suffered from halitosis, and then at the second step, the selected 84 students with halitosis were divided into two groups randomly. A total of 43 students in group 1 received a peppermint mouth rinse and 41 students in another group were given placebo. The students in two groups washed their mouth with 15-20 ml of the given solutions three times in a 1-week period (after breakfast, after lunch or on returning to home, before sleeping) and didn't eat anything for 30 min after rinsing. After 1 week, the students were examined again. Results: The prevalence of halitosis was 24.4% totally. In the mouth rinse group, after 1 week 23 students didn't exhibit halitosis, and 11 students in the placebo group were halitosis positive. A chi-square test showed that this difference was significant. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it can be said that a peppermint mouth rinse can reduce halitosis.
  2 4,654 390