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   2013| July-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since November 29, 2013

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Effectiveness of oral health education programs: A systematic review
Priya Devadas Nakre, AG Harikiran
July-December 2013, 3(2):103-115
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.127810  PMID:24778989
In recent years, attention has been drawn toward assessing the effectiveness of oral health education programs. This is in line with demand for evidence based research and will help to inform policy makers on how to allocate resources. (1) Collect and collate all information on oral health education programs. (2) Assess the programs based on various coding criteria. (3) Assess effectiveness of oral health education programs on oral health status and knowledge, attitude and practice. A search of all published articles in Medline was done using the keywords "oral health education, dental health education, oral health promotion". The resulting titles and abstracts provided the basis for initial decisions and selection of articles. Out of the primary list of articles, a total number of 40 articles were selected as they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: (1). Articles on oral health programs with an oral health education component (2). Articles published after the year 1990 (3). Articles published in English. The full text of the articles was then obtained from either the internet or libraries of dental research colleges and hospitals in and around Bangalore. A set of important variables were identified and grouped under five headings to make them amenable for coding. The coding variables were then described under various subheadings to allow us to compare the chosen articles. Oral health education is effective in improving the knowledge attitude and practice of oral health and in reducing plaque, bleeding on probing of the gingiva and caries increment. This study identifies a few important variables which contribute to the effectiveness of the programs. There is an indication in this review that the most successful oral health programs are labor intensive, involve significant others and has received funding and additional support. A balance between inputs and outputs and health care resources available will determine if the program can be recommended for general use.
  12,521 1,757 59
Prevalence of mandibular fractures reported at C.S.M.S.S Dental College, aurangabad from february 2008 to september 2009
Monali H Ghodke, Subhash C Bhoyar, Seemit V Shah
July-December 2013, 3(2):51-58
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122428  PMID:24778980
Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the etiology, frequency of mandibular fractures among different age and sex, to determine the frequency of anatomic distribution, and to report the different modalities of treatment provided to the patients reported at our institution from February 2008 to September 2009. Materials and Methods: All patients fulfilling the selection criteria and having mandible fracture were selected for the study. Patient information was collected by means of a medical data form specifically designed for the present study. The values were subjected to Z and Chi-square tests. Results: Out of 35 patients, thirty one were males (88.57%) and four were females (11.43%) with a male:female ratio of 8:1. We found a peak occurrence in young adults, aged 21-30 years (n = 15, 42.86%). In case of etiology of fracture, road traffic accidents (RTAs) was the most common (n = 25, 71.43%) and condyle was most frequently involved site (n = 19, 38.78%). In most (n = 16, 45.71%) of the patients, an open reduction and rigid internal fixation using bone plate and screws was done. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of mandible fractures was more prevalent in male patients, especially during the 3 rd decade of life. The most common cause was road traffic accident and the more frequently affected region was condyle of the mandible. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation using miniplates and screws was the most commonly used treatment.
  4,280 5,066 8
Evaluation and co-relation of the Oratest, colorimetric Snyder's test and salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children of age group of 6-8 years
Sanket S Kunte, Shweta Chaudhary, Asha Singh, Mayur Chaudhary
July-December 2013, 3(2):59-66
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122433  PMID:24778981
Aim: Evaluation and co-relation of the caries susceptibility using Oratest, colorimetric Snyder's test and salivary Streptococcus mutans count amongst children in the age group of 6-8 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 healthy children were grouped into control and test groups according to their dmft/DMFT scores. Snyder's test, salivary S. mutans count and Oratest were performed for each individual. Results: The relationship of three caries activity tests with each other and with existing caries status was found out. Conclusion and Clinical Implications : The present study has shown that Oratest has a definite clinical relationship with caries status and microbiological relationship with S. mutans count of the individual.
  6,636 2,535 2
Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in South Indian population
H Kaur, US Pavithra, R Abraham
July-December 2013, 3(2):97-102
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122453  PMID:24778988
Objective: To record prevalence of malocclusion among 2,400 adolescents in Karnataka state, India and to define difference in malocclusion status in urban and rural population. Design: Randomized cross-sectional study. Setting: School students of Karnataka state, 24 August 2011 to 30 March 2012. Participants: School students in the age group of 13-17 years. Materials and Methods: Each individual was assessed for occlusal traits - sagittal occlusion, overjet, overbite, crowding, midline diastema, and crossbite. Statistical Analysis Used: Examinations were computerized and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Chi-square test was used for computing statistical significance. Results: 87.79% of population had malocclusion. Out of which 89.45% had class I, 8.37% had class II, and 2.14% had class III malocclusion. Normal overjet and overbite was seen in 48.22 and 49.87% of subjects, respectively. Frequency of crowding was 58.12% and 15.43% of subjects had midline diastema. Anterior crossbite was present in 8.48% and posterior crossbite in 0.99%. Urban population had twice the class II sagittal occlusion, and increased overjet as compared to rural population. Conclusions: Malocclusion is widely spread among population of Karnataka state, with greater prevalence in urban population. Early exfoliation of deciduous teeth and refined diet can be considered as viable etiological factors.
  5,699 2 118
Awareness and risk perception of hepatitis B infection among auxiliary healthcare workers
Shankargouda Patil, Roopa S Rao, Anveeta Agarwal
July-December 2013, 3(2):67-71
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122434  PMID:24778982
Context: Auxiliary healthcare workers (AHCWs) have a higher risk of occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus infection than the general population. Daily handling and exposure to biomedical wastes, blood, and its products make the AHCWs vulnerable to blood borne diseases among which Hepatitis B is one of the world's most common and serious infectious diseases. Aims: To evaluate the HBV infection related awareness and occupational risk perception among AHCWs. Settings and Design: Survey. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey was carried out in M. S. Ramaiah Medical and Dental Hospitals among 300 auxiliary health workers which comprised of laboratory technicians, hygienists, laundry workers, and the housekeeping staff. After acquiring ethical clearance and informed written consent, they were explained about the objective of the study and were requested to fill a standard questionnaire. The data was compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Statistical Analysis Used : SPSS Software Version 19. Results: Our survey revealed that 90.03% of the respondents were aware of hepatitis B infection (HBI) and 67.2% answered questions correctly on risk perception. Only 37% of the respondents correctly answered questions on biomedical waste management. Conclusions: Overall, an adequate awareness and a moderate occupational risk perception about HBI were found among the study group. However, knowledge regarding hospital waste disposal was found to be insufficient. Our vision aims at a nation committed to combat silent epidemic of viral hepatitis infection.
  4,217 427 6
Mandibular hypo-hyperdontia: A report of three cases
S. V. S. G. Nirmala, C Sandeep, Sivakumar Nuvvula, Sreekanth Kumar Mallineni
July-December 2013, 3(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122451  PMID:24778987
Dental anomalies of tooth number in development of the permanent dentition are quite common than the primary dentition, however, the combined occurrence of hypodontia and hyperdontia is a rare phenomenon, especially in the same dental arch. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of concomitant hypo-hyperdontia (CHH) in three patients (one girl and two boys) with missing mandibular central incisor and an erupted mandibular mesiodens. Three rare cases of mandibular CHH were observed during routine examination, where the two anomalies manifested in the anterior region of the mandible. Furthermore, these are the only cases exhibited taurodontism in association with mandibular CHH.
  4,052 276 5
Assessment of relationship between body mass index and periodontal status among state government employees in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Deepak Sharma, Pravesh Jhingta, Shailee Fotedar, Manish Sahore, Kavita Manchanda
July-December 2013, 3(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122439  PMID:24778984
Background: The literature shows that an increased body mass index (BMI) may be a potential risk factor for periodontitis. Association between BMI and periodontitis has been ascribed to unhealthy dietary patterns with insufficient micronutrients and excess sugar and fat content. Aim: The present study intended to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status among state government employees in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 1,008 subjects aged 18-58 years, drawn by a proportional sample from 10,908 employees. BMI was calculated by the Quetelet index as the ratio of the subject's body weight (in kg) to the square of the height (in meters). Periodontal status was recorded using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Binary multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the relation between BMI and periodontal status. The dependent variable for logistic regression analysis was categorized into control group (scores 0-2 of the CPI) and periodontitis group (scores 3 and 4 of the CPI). Results: The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was 98.9%. Score 2 (bleeding and calculus) was the highest score prevailing among the subjects. They had an increased risk of periodontitis by 56% for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI, which means that a higher BMI could be a potential risk factor for periodontitis among the adults aged 18 to 58 years. Conclusion: BMI evaluation could be used in the assessment of periodontal risk.
  3,958 346 6
Knowledge, awareness and practices of dental care waste management among private dental practitioners in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali)
Mohit Bansal, Shelja Vashisth, Nidhi Gupta
July-December 2013, 3(2):72-76
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122436  PMID:24778983
Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the awareness and practices of dental care waste management among private dental practitioners in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali). Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 private dental practitioners selected by simple random sampling using a close-ended questionnaire. Results: Amongst the total respondents 52% were males and 48% were females. Nearly 14% of the dental practitioners were not aware of the different categories of the waste generated in their clinics and 12% of the practitioners were not aware of the color coding used to dispose the waste. About 26% of them practiced wrong measures to dispose sharps and extracted tooth respectively. A majority 32% of Dentists did not disposed outdated and expired medicines properly. Conclusion: Majority of the dental practitioners was aware of categories and color coding used for disposal of different types of wastes yet they do not follow the same in their practice. Hence, strict prosecution laws should also be imposed under biomedical waste management act for the Dentists so that it should be implemented in daily practice.
  3,600 477 8
Dental health attitude in Indian society
Pritma Singh, Afshan Bey, ND Gupta
July-December 2013, 3(2):81-84
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122444  PMID:24778985
Every society provides a unique soil for a health-care programmer to build upon. Indian society is similarly unique in factors such as social mindset, prevalent beliefs and customs. These factors should not be given a passive glance and should be explored carefully giving an adequate weight to each factor's background and its progress to the present status in contemporary dental practice. Only a careful scientific analysis of society is therefore the need of the hour for oral health-care programmers.
  2,670 303 3
Comparison of different caries diagnostic thresholds under epidemiological and clinical settings among 7-15 year old school children from Bangalore city
Swapnil Kumar Jain, K Pushpanjali, Satheesh Kumar Reddy, Rahul Gaikwad, Shravani Deolia
July-December 2013, 3(2):85-91
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.122449  PMID:24778986
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the different caries diagnostic thresholds under epidemiological and clinical settings among 7-15 year old school children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 7-15 years old school children of Bangalore city. Total 738 children were enrolled in the study. General information was collected regarding oral hygiene practice and personal habits of the schoolchildren. Subsequently, examination was done under both the settings to record Decayed, missing and filled surfaces index for permanent teeth (DMFS) and Decayed, missing and filled surfaces index for deciduous teeth (dmfs) using the World Health Organization (WHO) and WHO + IL criteria. Results: The present study showed that both the settings (clinical and epidemiological) and diagnostic thresholds (WHO and WHO + IL), could influence the detection of carious lesions. Mean Ds under WHO + Initial lesions (IL) criteria (3.92 + 3.49) was nearly double of WHO criteria (1.88 + 2.73,) and the influence observed was more in 14 years of age, where mean Ds under WHO + IL criteria (5.43 + 2.5) which was more than double of WHO criteria (2.02 + 1.9). Conclusion: The choice of a diagnostic threshold (WHO and WHO + IL) and the conditions of examination (epidemiological and clinical) are important for the detection of caries.
  2,461 249 4