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   2014| November  | Volume 4 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 13, 2014

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study to find the status of probiotics in New Delhi, India and review of strains of bacteria used as probiotics
Sumanth M Shetty, Deval Sandip Shah, Geeta Goyal, Navneet Singh Kathuria, Jiku Abraham, Vineet Bhatia
November 2014, 4(4):18-22
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144570  
Context: Probiotics are living microorganisms, principally bacteria, that are safe for human consumption and, when ingested in sufficient quantities, have beneficial effects on human health, beyond basic nutrition. However, in India people are not aware of their benefits and availability. Aims: To find status of probiotics in India and to assess the awareness regarding probiotics among chemists in New Delhi, India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 300 chemist shops in different areas of New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the chemist in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the availability of probiotic products at their chemist shop. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis using t test. Results: As per availability of probiotic products, total of 25 probiotic products were available at different chemist shops. None of the chemist shop had all the 25 products available. 10% shops had 75% products available and there were 5% such shops which didn't have any of the products available. Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the awareness among chemists about the probiotic products.
  3,881 375 1
Comparison of canine retraction by in vivo method using four brands of elastomeric power chain
Ravi Krishna Kanuru, Mustafa Azaneen, Veera Narayana, Balaram Kolasani, Ravikishore Reddy Indukuri, Firoz P Babu
November 2014, 4(4):32-37
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144586  
Objective: To investigate the amount of space closure by movement of canines into the extraction spaces using four brands of elastomeric power chains (EPCs) by intraoral application with pre-adjusted appliance for 6 weeks. Materials and Methods: The sample size calculation was based on the studies of Boester and Johnston and also with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) continuous data for force degradation, standard deviation of 24.9 g, and also from a pilot study, which totaled to around 17 patients with a mean age of 20 ± 2 years and receiving fixed orthodontic treatment that required retraction of canines into the premolar extraction spaces in all four dental arch quadrants. Four brands of EPCs, namely the Ormco, 3M Unitek, Rocky Mountain, and Highland, which were closed-link with five loops delivering less than or equal to 250 g were used. The rates of canine retraction were measured between the attachment points on the canine bracket hook and first molar hook using a Mitutoyo Digital Vernier Caliper at the time of first application, after 3 weeks of use, and at the end of 6 weeks of use, and were subjected to statistical calculations. Results: The distances recorded from canine retraction were similar with slight differences noticed in the four brands of EPCs. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in relation to the EPCs. Conclusion: Although all brands of the EPCs produced space closure of canines, it was observed that not much of a significant difference existed among the products tested.
  3,427 234 7
An assessment of pharmacy students' knowledge, attitude, and practice toward oral health: An exploratory study
Kingston Rajiah, Chow Jun Ving
November 2014, 4(4):56-62
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144601  
Background: Community pharmacies are now frequently being visited by customers/patients to seek oral advice. Malaysian community pharmacists are also found to be experiencing an increased demand of oral health advices by their visiting customers. Aims/Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the final year Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a private university toward oral health, as these students will be the future pharmacists. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among final year undergraduate pharmacy students by using self-administered questionnaire. It was conducted as a classroom survey. Raosoft software was used to determine the minimum required sample size. Results: The demographic distribution of the respondents was separated into gender, ethnicity, and state of origin. Over 83.8% of the participants were females, with Chinese ethnicity dominating (78.4%) compared to others, and the distribution showed 11 different states of origin. Conclusions: This research finding shows that pharmacy students have positive attitude toward oral health despite having poor knowledge and mediocre practice principles regarding oral health.
  3,281 210 7
Influence of aspirin on post-extraction bleeding - A clinical study
Dattatraya A Darawade, Santosh Kumar, Khushboo Desai, Basit Hasan, Anuj Vasantray Mansata
November 2014, 4(4):63-67
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144602  
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of aspirin on post-extraction bleeding in a clinical setup. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients aged between 50 and 65 years who were indicated for dental extraction for endodontic reason were selected from the outpatient Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. The patients were randomly divided into aspirin continuing group (group A) and aspirin discontinuing group (group B). After checking all the vital signs, the extractions were carried out. Bleeding time and clotting time were recorded for evaluation by Chi-square test. Results: Chi-square test revealed that the bleeding time increased (3.8 ± 0.75) in group A patients continued with the aspirin therapy where as group B discontinued aspirin. Similarly, the clotting time increased in group B patients and decreased in group A patients. But in both the groups, bleeding and clotting time remained within normal limits. Conclusion: Reviewing most of the dental and medical literature, it can be concluded that there is absolutely no need to discontinue antiplatelet therapy for any ambulatory dental procedure, and even if the practitioner wishes to discontinue, it should not be for more than 3 daAQ2ys. This is also stated in the guidelines of the American Heart Association.
  3,171 312 6
Comparative evaluation of bite forces in patients after treatment of mandibular fractures with miniplate osteosynthesis and internal locking miniplate osteosynthesis
Saurab Kumar, Shashank Reddy Gattumeedhi, Bharat Sankhla, Akshay Garg, Ekta Ingle, Namrata Dagli
November 2014, 4(4):26-31
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144575  
Aims and Objectives: The aim of present study was to compare the stability of fractured mandibular fragments under functional load, when fixed with conventional miniplate and internal locking miniplate. Materials and Methods: Bite force (in kg) recorded in twenty mandible fractured patients and fifty normal healthy individuals. Bite force was measured at incisor and molar regions. Comparative evaluation of bite force generated was performed between 10 cases treated with conventional miniplates and 10 cases treated with internal locking miniplates. Bite force generated by patients in mandibular fracture between symphysis and the angle of mandible was recorded in incisor and molar regions preoperatively. The fracture fragments were fixed using the above fixation techniques. Then same recording was undertaken on the 7 th , 14 th , 21 st , 28 th , and 90 th days postoperatively. Results: Bite force generated by patients treated with locking plates at the 7 th , 14 th , 21 st , 28 th , and 90 th postoperative days was significantly higher as compared to those in patients treated with miniplates. Conclusion: It was observed in our study that the locking plate/screw system offers significant advantages over the conventional plating system. There are no intraoperative difficulties associated with placement of the plate.
  3,068 261 5
REVIEW ARTICLES
Crosstalk between hormones and oral health in the mid-life of women: A comprehensive review
Chander Mohan Grover, Vanita Parshuram More, Navneet Singh, Shekhar Grover
November 2014, 4(4):5-10
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144559  
Oral health is constantly shaped by the cross-talk between behavioral, biological, and social forces. Menopause is that time in a woman's life when menstrual cycles cease by reduced secretion of the ovarian hormones, such as, estrogen and progesterone. Diseases of the mouth itself are the most common reasons for pain and discomfort in the mouth. However, there are certain situations where oral symptoms are caused as a result of systemic diseases. This review article has emphasized on the diverse oral presentations of postmenopausal women by descriptive analysis of various underlying mechanisms associated with these conditions. Dentists should be aware of the possible association of menopause and various oral health problems.
  2,973 320 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of combination therapy using anorganic bovine bone graft with resorbable GTR membrane vs. open flap debridement alone in the management of grade II furcation defects in mandibular molars - A comparative study
Anitha Logaranjani Kannan, Buvaneshwari Birla Bose, Jananni Muthu, Rajapriya Perumalsamy, Saravanan Pushparajan, Ambalavanan Namasivayam
November 2014, 4(4):38-43
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.142992  
Context: Invasion of the bifurcation and trifurcation of the multi-rooted teeth resulting in furcation involvement is one of the serious complications of periodontitis. Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy using anorganic bovine bone graft and resorbable guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane versus open flap debridement alone in the management of Grade II furcation defects in mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: The study included a total number of 20 sites in 10 patients with bilateral mandibular furcation defects, out of which 10 sites were treated as test group and 10 as control group. The test group was treated with combination therapy and the control group with open flap debridement alone. The parameters were recorded on 0 day (baseline), 90th day, and 180th day, which included vertical probing depth and horizontal probing depth of the furcation defect, clinical attachment level, and defect fill. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and standard deviation were calculated for different variables in each study group at different time points. Mean values were compared by using Wilcoxon signed ranks test, after adjusting the P values for multiple comparison by using Bonferroni correction method. Results: Both the test and control groups showed a definitive improvement in clinical parameters, which was statistically significant. On comparison, the vertical probing depth showed significant reduction in the test group with a mean reduction of 3.1 ± 0.7 mm, when compared to the control group which showed a mean reduction of 1.5 ± 0.5 mm. The horizontal probing depth of furcation defects was also significantly reduced in the test group with a mean reduction of 2.2 ± 0.6 mm, when compared to the control group in which the mean reduction was 0.9 ± 0.3 mm. There was also significant gain in attachment level in the test group which showed a mean gain of 3.2 ± 0.6 mm, when compared to the control group which showed a gain of 1.2 ± 0.6 mm. Radiographic defect fill was found to be more in the test group with a mean gain of 2.0 ± 0.1 mm, when compared to the control group which showed a defect fill of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of anorganic bovine bone graft and resorbable GTR membrane is effective than open flap debridement alone in the treatment of mandibular grade II furcation defects.
  2,924 320 2
Knowledge and attitude regarding management of tooth avulsion injuries among school teachers in rural India
Supreetha Shamarao, Jithesh Jain, Sunil Lingaraj Ajagannanavar, Reshmi Haridas, Shreyas Tikare, Amrutha Ammanichanda Kalappa
November 2014, 4(4):44-48
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144599  
Objectives: Traumatic dento-alveolar injuries are frequent in children and adolescents, affecting teeth, their supporting structures, and adjacent soft tissues. Because school teachers are likely to be in contact with the child soon after injury, it is important to ascertain their knowledge and attitude about this. Aim: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers in Coorg with regard to immediate management of avulsed teeth. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among school teachers in Coorg district. A self-administered questionnaire containing 16 questions was given to a sample of 600 school teachers. Results: Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test were used for analysis. Only 24.7% teachers thought the tooth was important and wanted to search for the avulsed tooth. Regarding the knowledge about replantation of tooth, 25.7% teachers knew that a fallen tooth can be placed back in the socket. Extraoral time for replantation of the tooth that was opted by 44 teachers (30.3%) was ≤30 min. Conclusion: This survey reflected the lack of experience and inadequate knowledge regarding dental trauma management among school teachers in Coorg. The implications of this study are directed toward education of these school teachers who are involved in the supervision of children in schools.
  2,685 278 10
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sex hormones in gender-specific risk for head and neck cancer: A review
Purshotam Nainani, Aparna Paliwal, Neelu Nagpal, Mayank Agrawal
November 2014, 4(4):1-4
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144557  
Despite the fact that numerous researches have been carried out to prevent head and neck cancer (HNC) and treat those patients, there is no reduction in morbidity rate because the underlying molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Endocrine microenvironment is another vital factor besides other traditional risk factors like tobacco smoking, infections, and alcohol. It has been proven that sex hormone receptors are also expressed in larynx and lungs, in addition to sex organs. Sex hormones play a vital role in gene expression involved in the plethora of biological and neoplastic processes. The role of sex hormones in HNC is still divisive and very few researches have been conducted to describe their role. So, this article is an effort to attract the attention of researchers, endocrinologists, pathologists, and clinicians toward the impending role of sex hormones, with special emphasis on progesterone, estrogen, and prolactin in HNC onset and progression, along with their therapeutic role.
  2,342 266 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Primary oral non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - A clinicopathologic study with immunohistochemical analysis
Dominic Augustine, Bala Sekar, R Thiruneervannan, Murali Sundhar, Donga Reddy, Shankar Gouda Patil
November 2014, 4(4):68-71
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144603  
Context: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a group of highly diverse malignancies whose prognosis depends on the histologic type and associated factors like HIV positivity. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate eight cases of NHL for their histologic type and HIV positivity, since both are major prognostic factors for NHL. Settings and Design: Eight cases of primary NHL of the oral cavity were evaluated for age, sex, clinical presentation, and the histologic type, along with immunohistochemistry. These cases were also evaluated for HIV positivity. Materials and Methods: NHL cases which were diagnosed through the dental OPD and subsequent biopsy procedure were chosen. The patient data, including age, sex, location, clinical presentation, radiographic presentation, metastasis, and histologic subtype, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification were tabulated. Immunohistochemical markers were used to confirm the cell type. CD20 and CD3 were used for B cell and T cell, respectively. Subsequent western blot analysis was carried out for HIV detection. Results: 75% of the NHL was of B-cell type; of this, 83% was found to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which is an aggressive variant. 62.5% of cases were found to be HIV positive. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for HIV investigation in NHL cases and the need to determine the histologic type, both of which significantly affect the treatment outcome and prognosis.
  2,319 267 5
Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices among the primary health care workers of a district in India
Praveen Haricharan Bhoopathi, Peddi Reddy Parthasarthi Reddy, Arpitha Kotha, Monica Mancherla, Prathibha Boinapalli, Amit Samba
November 2014, 4(4):11-17
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144563  
Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the primary health care workers in our country. Materials and Methods: Data was gathered by means of a closed-ended questionnaire form. A total of 30 primary health centers (PHCs) and 60 subcenters (SCs) were included in the study. Frequency distribution was used together with Chi-square tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in this study. A P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Only 40% of the primary health care workers knew that dental caries is multifactorial, majority of them could not identify the symptoms of gum diseases, a meager number of the primary health care workers (28%) knew about the oral health aspects of a pregnant lady, and with the exception of doctors, the other health care workers were not sure of the etiology of oral cancer. Conclusion: About one-tenth of the primary care workers had high knowledge regarding oral health, only one-tenth of them had highly favorable oral health attitudes, and 9% of them had highly favorable oral health practices.
  2,306 259 3
An audit of school oral health education program in a developing country
Folake B Lawal, Juliana O Taiwo
November 2014, 4(4):49-55
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144600  
Objective: The increasing prevalence of oral diseases in children in developing countries is a major public health concern and creates the need to review various preventive strategies put in place on oral health promotion. In the absence of formal national programs, tertiary health institutions have adopted low-budget school oral education programs targeted at improving oral health awareness and behavioral changes in school children. The aim of this study was to review the school oral health education programs conducted by the Community Dentistry Unit of a tertiary hospital in a major city in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An evaluation of the school oral health education programs conducted in the city over a 5-year period was done. Data collected included: venue of the program, the number of students and teachers educated in each school, screening and referrals, adequacy of teaching aids, desire for revisit, and barriers noted in its conduct. Results: A total of 104 oral health education programs were conducted during this period involving 16,248 participants. The majority (80%) of the schools visited were primary schools and 54% were privately owned. Over half of the programs was conducted on assembly grounds, 21% in classrooms, and 13% in school halls. Challenges encountered included: lack of audiovisual aids, transportation problems, inadequacy of screening tools, and insufficient promotional materials. All the schools visited requested for (subsequent) regular visitation. Conclusion: The study showed the feasibility of low-budget oral health education and willingness of schools to benefit from such programs. There are barriers to effective communication, which can be mitigated in order to achieve an optimal school oral health education program in a low resource setting.
  2,161 244 4
A simplified method of preventing implant hex drive from aspiration or accidental swallowing during stage two implant recovery
Akurati Ratnaditya, Srinivas Ravuri, Durga Prasad Tadi, Chaitanya Ram Kandregula, Rajkumar Chowdary Kopuri, Venkata Girish Pentakota
November 2014, 4(4):23-25
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.144572  
Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instruments to the operator's ring with silk ligatures or dental floss.
  2,186 207 2
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