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   2014| December  | Volume 4 | Issue 5  
    Online since December 4, 2014

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Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study
Sunil Lingaraj Ajagannanavar, Supreetha Shamarao, Hemant Battur, Shreyas Tikare, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Kheraif, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy AlS ayed
December 2014, 4(5):116-121
Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the study, various concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic Stevia extract were prepared in the laboratory of Pharmacy College. It was then subjected to microbiological assay to determine its zone of inhibition using Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using serial broth dilution method against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Tukey post hoc for group wise comparisons. Results: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous and ethnolic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus were 25% and 12.5% respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Streptococcus mutans at 48 hours were 22.8 mm and 26.7 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the aqueous and alcoholic Stevia extracts against Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours were 14.4 mm and 15.1 mm respectively. Mean zone of inhibition of the chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus at 48 hours was 20.5 and 13.2 respectively. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect shown by alcoholic Stevia extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was superior when compared with that of aqueous form and was inferior when compared with Chlorhexidine.
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The influence of finishing/polishing time and cooling system on surface roughness and microhardness of two different types of composite resin restorations
Raja Rajeswari Kaminedi, Narendra Varma Penumatsa, Tulasi Priya, Kusai Baroudi
December 2014, 4(5):99-104
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing time and polishing time on surface roughness and microhardness of nanofilled and hybrid resin composites. Materials and Methods: Hundred disk composite specimens from micro hybrid composite and nanohybrid composite were prepared, 50 for each type of composite. The specimens were divided into five groups according to the time of finishing and polishing (immediate, 15 min, 24 h and dry). Composite under the Mylar strip without finishing and polishing was taken as the control group. Surface roughness was measured with environmental scanning electronic microscope (ESEM) and microhardness was determined using Vickers Microhardness Tester. Data collected were statistically analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey's post hoc test. Results: Smooth surface with low hardness was obtained for the group under Mylar strip without finishing and polishing. The highest roughness was recorded for delayed finishing and polishing for both composites. Immediate finishing and polishing increased the surface hardness more than that in the control group in both types of composites. Dry finishing reduced the hardness significantly for micro hybrid composite, but resulted in the highest surface hardness for nanofilled composite. Conclusion: Immediate finishing and polishing under coolant resulted in the best surface smoothness and hardness values in micro hybrid composite; however, immediate dry finishing and polishing gave the best smoothness and hardness values in nanohybrid composite.
  9 2,662 253
Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial
Sachin Naik, Sanjeev Khanagar, Amit Kumar, Sujith Ramachandra, Sunil V Vadavadagi, Kiran Murthy Dhananjaya
December 2014, 4(5):110-115
Background: Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70-80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was planned among male prisoners in Central Jail, Bangalore city. There were 1600 convicted prisoners. A self-administered questionnaire was given to the prisoners to assess their smoking behavior by which prevalence of tobacco smoking was found. Exactly 1352 tobacco users were studied. Among them, there were 1252 smokers. Based on inclusion criteria and informed consent given by the prisoners, a sample of 600 was chosen for the study by systematic random sampling. Among the 600 prisoners, 300 were randomly selected for the study group and 300 for the control group. Results: Prevalence of tobacco smoking among the prisoners was 92.60%. In the present study, after smoking cessation intervention, 17% showed no change in smoking, 21.66% reduced smoking, 16% stopped smoking, and 45.33% relapsed (P < 0.0001) at the end of 6-month follow-up in the study group. Conclusion: Tobacco use was high among the prisoners. Tobacco reduction is possible in the prison even if the living conditions are not favorable. Relatively high rate of relapse in our study indicates that some policies should be adopted to improve smokers' information on consequences of tobacco on health and motivational intervention should be added to prisoners.
  8 2,716 412
Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study
Aravind Tatikonda, Surangama Debnath, Vivek Singh Chauhan, Vishwajit Rampratap Chaurasia, M Taranath, Akanksha Manmohan Sharma
December 2014, 4(5):126-129
Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35-43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis.
  7 4,018 511
Pathognomonic features of Angle's Class II division 2 malocclusion: A comparative cephalometric and arch width study
Singamsetty E. R. V Prasad, Ravikishore Reddy Indukuri, Rupesh Singh, Anitha Nooney, Firoz Babu Palagiri, Veera Narayana
December 2014, 4(5):105-109
Background: A thorough knowledge of the salient features of malocclusion helps the clinician in arriving at a proper diagnosis and treatment plan, and also to predict the prognosis, prior to the onset of treatment process. Among the four classes of Angle's classification of malocclusion, Class II division 2 occurs with the least frequency. There is still continuing debate in the literature whether the Class II division 2 patients ascribe the pathognomonic skeletal and dental features. Aim of the study: The aim of this study is to describe the unique features of Angle's Class II division 2 malocclusion to differentiate it from Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A total of 582 pre-treatment records (study models and cephalograms), with the age of patients ranging from 15 to 22 years, were obtained from the hospital records of Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram and Geetam's Dental College, Visakhapatnam. Out of these, 11 pre-treatment records were excluded because of lack of clarity. In the rest of the sample, 283 were Class II division 1 and 288 were Class II division 2. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed by using digiceph and the arch width analysis was done based on the anatomical points described by Staley et al. and Sergl et al. Results: An intergroup evaluation was done by using unpaired Student's "t" test. The skeletal vertical parameters, dental parameters, and the maxillary arch width parameters revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of malocclusion. Conclusion: Angle's Class II division 2 malocclusion has a pronounced horizontal growth pattern with decreased lower anterior facial height, retroclined upper anteriors, and significantly increased maxillary arch width parameters.
  3 3,136 261
Use of mid upper arm circumference for evaluation of nutritional status of OSMF patients
Suryanarayana R Yallamraju, Rachit Mehrotra, Abhishek Sinha, Shashank Reddy Gattumeedhi, Abhishek Gupta, Smita V Khadse
December 2014, 4(5):122-125
Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is always associated with juxtaepithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibroblastic changes in lamina propria, with epithelial atrophy leading to stiffness of oral mucosa and causing trismus and inability to eat. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a useful tool for a fast assessment of the nutritional status. Aims: The study was undertaken to evaluate the correlation of MUAC as a nutritional status indicator in OSMF patients. Patients and Methods: The study group comprised 50 clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of OSMF. MUAC was recorded using a plastic measuring tape. The right upper arm was measured at the midpoint between the tip of the shoulder and the tip of the elbow (olecranon process and the acromium). Results: Out of 50 subjects, 76% (38) were having MUAC value <23 cm, which shows an inverse relation between MUAC and clinical staging. The relation of MUAC with clinical staging was significant. Conclusion: The patient with OSMF becomes unable to eat due to burning, ulcers, and inability to open mouth, which affects the health of the individual. Thus, it is crucial to access the nutritional status to improve the survival rate of patients.
  1 3,433 483
Dental insurance: A systematic review
Bharath Kumar Garla, G Satish, KT Divya
December 2014, 4(5):73-77
To review uses of finance in dentistry. A search of 25 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Insurance has come of ages and has become the mainstay of payment in many developed countries. So much so that all the alternative forms of payment which originated as an alternative to fee for service now depend on insurance at one point or the other. Fee for service is still the major form of payment in many developing countries including India. It is preferred in many instances since the payment is made immediately.
  1 2,959 439
Biomimetic ceramics for periodontal regeneration in infrabony defects: A systematic review
Jasuma Jagdish Rai, Thanveer Kalantharakath
December 2014, 4(5):78-92
Biomimetic materials are widely used in the treatment of osseous defects as an alternative to autogenous bone graft. The aim of this article was to review the literature and compare the quality of published articles on biomimetic ceramic material used for periodontal regeneration in the treatment of infrabony defects and to discuss the future direction of research. The bibliographic databases PubMed, Ebsco, and Google Scholar were searched from January 2000 to March 2014 for randomized control trials in which biomimetic ceramic graft material was compared with open flap debridement or in combination with any other regenerative material. To avoid the variability of the search terms, the thesaurus Mesh was used. The primary outcome variable assessed was clinical attachment level (CAL). The screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials, and data extraction were performed by two observers independently. Twenty-six articles were identified and included in this systematic review. The primary outcome was CAL. Out of the 26 studies, 24 showed more than 2 mm of CAL gain. The difference in CAL change between test and control groups varied from 1.2 mm to 5.88 mm with respect to different biomaterials/biomimetic materials, which was clinically and statistically significant. Meta-analysis was not done due to heterogeneity in results between studies. Overall, biomaterials were found to be more effective than open flap debridement in improving the attachment levels in intraosseous defects. Future research should aim at increasing the osteoinductive capacity of these biomimetic graft materials.
  1 3,350 350
Preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao
Orawan Suwansingha, Praphasri Rirattanapong
December 2014, 4(5):93-98
Objectives: To study a group of preschool children's caregivers' attitudes and behavior regarding bottle feeding in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 320 caregivers of preschool children aged 3-6 years, who were attending the public preschools in Bangpakong, Chachoengsao, and they completed self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires had information about demographic data, weaning status, the feeding practices for children who were still on a bottle, and the caregivers' attitudes on bottle feeding according to weaning status. Results: Of these children, 38.4% were still on a bottle while 61.6% had been weaned. Mean age at the weaning time was 3.1 ± 0.6 years. The most common reason that led caregivers of bottle feeding group to allow continuation of the habit was the child refused to wean. Of these caregivers, 56% lacked knowledge concerning the appropriate weaning time and that the use of bottles should be actively discouraged for children after 1 year of age. Attitudes between bottle feeding and weaned groups were significantly different (P < 0.05) in the following: a child should be introduced to drink from cup after 1 year of age, nursing bottle works best to stop a child from crying, early weaning results in poor mental health, and early weaning results in malnutrition. Conclusion: Prolonged bottle feeding beyond the recommended age was found in the majority of preschool children in this study. Dental professions should provide oral health promotion education program including feeding practice information to caregivers.
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