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   2015| January-February  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 23, 2015

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Biofilm in endodontics: A review
Kapil Jhajharia, Abhishek Parolia, K Vikram Shetty, Lata Kiran Mehta
January-February 2015, 5(1):1-12
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151956  PMID:25767760
Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms' formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to identify biofilms.
  15,230 1,833 83
Premolar extraction in orthodontics: Does it have any effect on patient's facial height?
Abdol-Hamid Zafarmand, Mohamad-Mahdi Zafarmand
January-February 2015, 5(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151980  PMID:25767770
Objectives: Facial esthetics is an important part of the orthodontic treatment. Many cases frequently require premolar extraction, either for relief of crowding or for profile change. Supposedly, extraction provides some vertical reduction. This investigation challenges the clinical effects of such treatment protocols. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective and quasi-experimental study. Records of  60 patients in their post-pubertal age were randomly selected for this study. The criteria for ca se selection were: Class II Division I malocclusion with either two upper or four upper and lower first premolars extraction. Patients were not vertical-sensitive type of face. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays were scanned and digitized with Dolphin V 10.0 software. The X-rays of both groups were compared based upon the following cephalometric measurements: Lower anterior facial height (LAFH), Me-PP, Pal-MeGe, LAFH/total anterior facial height (TAFH) × 100, upper anterior facial height (UAFH)/TAFH × 100, U6 to PP, L6 to MP, and U6D-PTV. Results: In the four bicuspid group, a statistically significant increase was observed in all measurements: 2.53 mm increase in LAFH (P ≤ 0.04), 2.92 mm increase in Me-PP (P ≤ 0.01), 0.65° increase in Pal-MeGe (P ≤ 0.02), 0.66° increase in LAFH/TAFH × 100 (P ≤ 0.01), 1.26 mm increase in U6 to PP (P ≤ 0.02), 1.96 mm increase in L6 to MP (P ≤ 0.002), and 3.06 mm increase in U6D-PTV (P ≤ 0.0001). But a decrease of 0.66° in UAFH/TAFH × 100 (P ≤ 0.01) was observed. In the two bicuspid group, a significant increase was generally recorded: 2.06 mm increase in LAFH (P ≤ 0.05), 1.19° increase in Pal-MeGe (P ≤ 0.02), 1.39 mm increase in L6 to MP (P ≤ 0.002), and 2.37 mm increase in U6D-PTV (P ≤ 0.004). Conclusions: The results of this study are indicative of no change in patient's facial height with bicuspid extraction. In fact, extrusive effect of all types of tooth movement mostly overcomes the benefits of "wedging effect concept."
  4,336 332 6
Caries experience and its association with weight status among 8-year-old children in Qingdao, China
Fang Yang, Ying Zhang, Xiao Yuan, Jiangbo Yu, Shulan Chen, Zhenggang Chen, Dawei Guo, Jiefeng Cai, Ning Ma, Exiang Guo
January-February 2015, 5(1):52-58
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151978  PMID:25767768
Objectives: Childhood obesity/underweight status and caries are both important public health problems. This study aims to investigate the caries status and its association with body weight in 8-year-old children in Qingdao, China. Materials and Methods: We initiated a cross-sectional investigation on 744 children aged 8 years during the Oral Health Survey in 2012. Dental caries assessments were carried out and weight status was recorded accordingly. The resulting caries status including caries prevalence, dmft (deciduous dentition), and (dmft + DMFT) (mixed dentition), as well as BMI indices were analyzed for comparison and correlation. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among the 744 children aged 8 years participating in this survey was 86.3%. The caries status represented by dmft (deciduous dentition) and (dmft + DMFT) (mixed dentition) values was 4.31 and 4.85, respectively, and the restoration rate was extremely low, which was no more than 3.0%. Significant difference was found in dmft/(dmft + DMFT) values between different BMI groups, and underweight individuals were found to have the highest dmft/(dmft + DMFT) value. An inverse relationship between body BMI and dmft/(dmft + DMFT) index was identified based on Pearson's correlation. Conclusions: A severe state of caries disease was revealed in 8-year-old children in the Chinese city of Qingdao, for whom urgent dental intervention and treatment were needed. Furthermore, underweight individuals were found with the most severe caries experience, indicating caries may affect the development and growth of the afflicted children. Thus, more emphasis should be placed on improving their dental health, with caries prevention being given the priority.
  4,331 309 21
Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status of a screened population in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Arigbede Abiodun Olabisi, Umanah Ayamma Udo, Ukegheson Gabriel Ehimen, Braimoh Omoigberai Bashiru, Omitola Olufemi Gbenga, Akadiri Oladimeji Adeniyi
January-February 2015, 5(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151979  PMID:25767769
Objectives: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and partial edentulism, in addition to assessing the oral hygiene status and restorative care among adults in a community-based outreach program in Port Harcourt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults who participated in oral health screening program, which took place in Alakahia and Obigbo rural communities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. After a brief oral health education, clinical examination was conducted and the diagnosis of caries was made based on the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization. Prevalence of caries was measured using decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, and oral hygiene status was assessed using the OHI-S. The restorative index [(F/F + D) ×100] was also calculated and the sociodemographic factors of the subjects were noted. Chi-square test, independent t-test and descriptive statistic were employed for analysis. Results: One fifty-five females (53.8%) and 133 males (46.2%) attended the events and their mean age was 29.3 ± 10.5 years. About one-third of the participants (35.1%) presented with dental caries. The mean DMFT for the whole group was 0.67 ± 2.0. The restorative index for the subjects was 26.8%. The oral hygiene status of most of the participants was fair. This was significantly better in females than in males (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Although about one-third of the participants had dental caries, only a quarter of them had received restorative care. Most of the respondents had fair and poor oral hygiene, this suggests the need to educate and motivate the community toward adopting and maintaining positive oral health attitudes and practices.
  4,237 288 9
Mutans streptococci estimation in saliva before and after consumption of probiotic curd among school children
Manish Bhalla, Navin Anand Ingle, Navpreet Kaur, Pramod Yadav
January-February 2015, 5(1):31-34
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151970  PMID:25767764
Background: According to the World Health Organization, probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts and confer a health benefit to the host. Use of probiotics in children to improve oral health may lead to non-pathogenic bacteria replacing cariogenic bacteria. Dairy foods like cheese, curd, and milk are considered useful vehicles for probiotic bacteria. Aim: To compare the levels of salivary mutans streptococci before and after consumption of probiotic curd. Materials and Methods: Thirty school children of Mathura city who were caries free, in the age group of 12-14 years, were selected and divided equally into group I and II which were given 200 ml probiotic curd and normal curd for 7 days, respectively. Assessment of saliva samples was done at baseline, 1 h after consumption, and on the 7 th day. Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin Agar was used for analysis. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The study showed mark reduction in salivary mutans streptococci counts in saliva after 1 h and on the 7 th day in the probiotic group. Results were found to be statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) when the differences in the reduction of mutans streptococci counts with probiotic curd and normal curd at 1 h and on the 7 th day were compared. Conclusion: Pathogenic microorganisms could be displaced by probiotic bacteria. Thus, use of probiotic products could be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.
  4,157 319 7
Reforming craniofacial orthodontics via stem cells
Pritam Mohanty, N.K.K. Prasad, Nivedita Sahoo, Gunjan Kumar, Debapreeti Mohanty, Sushila Sah
January-February 2015, 5(1):13-18
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151966  PMID:25767761
Stem cells are the most interesting cells in cell biology. They have the potential to evolve as one of the most powerful technologies in the future. The future refers to an age where it will be used extensively in various fields of medical and dental sciences. Researchers have discovered a number of sources from which stem cells can be derived. Craniofacial problems are very common and occur at all ages. Stem cells can be used therapeutically in almost every field of health science. In fact, many procedures will be reformed after stem cells come into play. This article is an insight into the review of the current researches being carried out on stem cells and its use in the field of orthodontics, which is a specialized branch of dentistry. Although the future is uncertain, there is a great possibility that stem cells will be used extensively in almost all major procedures of orthodontics.
  3,871 320 3
Evaluation of preparedness for medical emergencies at dental offices: A survey
Shweta Kumarswami, Anish Tiwari, Mayank Parmar, Manisha Shukla, Amit Bhatt, Mittal Patel
January-February 2015, 5(1):47-51
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151977  PMID:25767767
Background: The best way to handle an emergency is to be prepared in advance. The purpose of this study was to assess the availability of medical emergency drugs at dental offices and to determine the level of knowledge and preparedness of dentists to manage medical emergencies at their dental offices. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2014 with 250 dental graduates to determine their knowledge and ability in the management of medical emergencies and assess availability of emergency drugs and equipments in dental offices in the Ahmedabad and Udaipur areas of India. The questionnaire consisted of mainly objective questions, requiring a simple yes or no reply. Mann-Whitney test was used for the analysis. A 95% confidence level was used and a P value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results of our study showed that almost all the surveyed dentists (98%) enquired about medical history, but only 12% obtained filled health history proforma from patients regarding the above. Only 38.4% participants recorded the vital signs of patients before commencing any treatment. Also, 7.6% reported about having attended any workshops on emergency training or management programs. Emergency kits were available with only 24% participants and the available kits were assessed for the availability of emergency drugs. Also, 34% were confident about giving intramuscular injection and only 6.6% were sure about giving intravenous injections. The P value was found to be highly statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of our study reflect an alarming situation about the capability of dentists to deal with such conditions.
  3,241 327 9
Comparative evaluation of four transport media for maintaining cell viability in transportation of an avulsed tooth - An in vitro study
Makonahalli Jaganath Bharath, Chickmagravalli Krishnegowda Sahadev, Praveen Kumar Makonahalli Ramachandra, Sandeep Rudranaik, Jijo George, Ashna Thomas
January-February 2015, 5(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151981  PMID:25767771
Objectives: The study was performed to compare and evaluate the efficacy of four experimental storage media (Hank's balanced salt solution, Ringer's lactate solution, tender coconut water, and green tea extract) for maintaining cell viability of human periodontal cells at different time intervals of 15 min 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min. Materials and Methods: Human periodontal cells were cultured and stored in the four media. After 15 min 30 min, 60 min, and 90 min, the different media were examined under optical microscope and viabilities analyzed using an optical calorimeter. Mean and standard deviation were estimated from the results that were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significant groups. Results: The results indicated that there was no difference in cell viability between the four media up to a period of 60 min, whereas green tea extract showed a lower cell viability after 90 min. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it appears that due to superior osmolality, cost effectiveness, and easier availability, Ringer's lactate, tender coconut water, and green tea extract can be used as alternate storage media for avulsed tooth.
  3,143 221 3
A comprehensive comparative analysis of articles retracted in 2012 and 2013 from the scholarly literature
Ravi Sankar Damineni, Kapil Kumar Sardiwal, Sita Ram Waghle, MB Dakshyani
January-February 2015, 5(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151968  PMID:25767762
Background: Science is a dynamic subject with ever-changing concepts and is said to be self-correcting. One of the major mechanisms of self-correction is retraction of flawed work. Aim: To study the various parameters associated with retraction of scientific articles in 2012 and 2013 and discuss the current trends in article retraction over the period of 2 years. Materials and Methods: Data were retrieved from MEDLINE (via PubMed) using the keywords retraction of articles, retraction notice, and withdrawal of article in January 2014, and analysis of articles published in 2012 and 2013 was carried out. Results: A total of 155 articles in 2012 and 182 in 2013 were retracted, and original articles followed by case reports constituted major part of it. The most cited reasons for retraction were mistakes, plagiarism, and duplicate submission, and the time interval between submission and retraction had reduced in 2013. Conclusion: Although retracted articles constitute the tip of an iceberg, they are still a matter of major concern in the scientific world. So, editors should follow the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines and make an effective strategy in order to reduce such misconduct, as it reflects very adversely not only in the scientific community but also in the general public.
  2,749 262 5
Oral health concerns with sweetened medicaments: Pediatricians' acuity
S.V.S.G. Nirmala, Vimala Devi Popuri, Sandeep Chilamakuri, Sivakumar Nuvvula, Sindhuri Veluru, MS Minor Babu
January-February 2015, 5(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151973  PMID:25767765
Background: Administration of sweetened medicaments poses many oral health related problems in children due to the lack of awareness among the pediatricians regarding their ill effects. Purpose: To assess pediatricians' awareness and attitudes toward the use of liquid pediatric medicines and their relationship with dental caries and erosion. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among the pediatricians residing in Nellore city. Data were obtained from 55 pediatricians using questionnaires. Results: Among the respondents, 95.6% prescribed liquid medicaments, 51.1% expressed that they may be associated with dental effects, 60% were not aware regarding the sweetness of medicaments, whereas majority of them (77.8%) opined that children complained regarding the taste, 73.3% stated that sugar substitutes were used as sweetening agents, 70.9% believed that they were not acidic, 68.9% did not recommend brushing after intake of medicines, 90% failed to deliver oral health instructions, and 54.5% believed that lack of oral hygiene was a contributing factor for development of dental caries. Conclusion: Majority of the respondents prescribed liquid medicaments and were unaware regarding the sweetening agents and acidity, which cause ill effects on the dental hard tissues. Most of them neither recommended nor delivered oral hygiene instructions (OHI) after prescribing sweetened liquid medicaments. Hence, OHI should be delivered to enhance the oral health related quality of life in children.
  2,706 260 6
Gingival crevicular fluid: As a diagnostic marker in HIV positive patients
Prachi Atram, Pallavi Patil, Fatema Saify, Vanita Rathod, Swati Gotmare
January-February 2015, 5(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151969  PMID:25767763
Objective: To determine the utility of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) for the detection of anti-HIV antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with respect to their CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out between 37 seropositive (37GCF, 10 saliva) and 37 seronegative (GCF) individuals for a period of 7-8 months in GDC Nagpur. Thirty-seven GCF and 10 whole saliva samples were collected from the same patient. GCF samples were collected from gingival crevice with the help of Kimble disposable microcapillary. Saliva was collected by asking the patient to bend forward. The drooling saliva was collected in a sterile bottle and stored at Minus 20°C (-20°C). After the clinical observations the data were collected and tabulated for statistical analysis. Results: When compared with serum, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of GCF were 100% respectively. Conclusion: All the above findings are suggestive of GCF being a better diagnostic medium than saliva.
  2,737 216 1
Career satisfaction among dental practitioners in Srikakulam, India
Sudhakar Kaipa, Siva Kumar Pydi, Rathikota Veeravenkata Sathyasai Krishna Kumar, Gomasani Srinivasulu, Venkata Rajesh Kumar Darsi, Munikumar Sode
January-February 2015, 5(1):40-46
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.151976  PMID:25767766
Background: This cross-sectional study was designed to measure the level and distribution of job satisfaction of registered dental practitioners and to explore the factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 66 registered dentists in Srikakulam, India. Job satisfaction was measured by using a modified version of the Dentists Satisfaction Survey questionnaire. The statistical tests employed were "t" test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post hoc test (Scheffe test) was employed for multiple comparisons. Results: The response rate was 82.5%. The mean score of overall job satisfaction among dentists was 3.08 out of 5. The most satisfying aspect was income (3.7) and the least satisfying aspect was staff (2.5). Overall satisfaction increased with age. Male practitioners showed less satisfaction with staff, income, and overall satisfaction and more satisfaction in professional relations and time, when compared to females. Job satisfaction was found to be more in practitioners with postgraduate qualification. Conclusion: This study suggests that patient relations, perception of income, personal time, and staff are the important factors for job satisfaction among dentists. The findings of this study will be helpful to policymakers to design plans in order to increase the level of job satisfaction.
  2,451 216 6