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   2015| December  | Volume 5 | Issue 8  
    Online since December 31, 2015

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Awareness of hepatitis B infection among healthcare students in a private medical college in Odisha
Priyadarshini Choudhury, Silpiranjan Mishra, Srinivas Kandula, Sangamesh Ningappa Chinnannavar, Purnendu Rout, Rajat Panigrahi
December 2015, 5(8):63-67
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.171260  PMID:26942119
Background: The emergence of the blood-borne pathogens and the increasing number of infected patients and the increasing interest in dental health care compel the dental professionals to have thorough knowledge about communicable diseases and the MBBS and nursing students are always at risk because of their profession. As hepatitis B infection is a major health hazard throughout the world, healthcare students should have through knowledge about this disease. Setia et al. had conducted a similar kind of study in Punjab in which the sample size was smaller and it included only the interns, whereas the present study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about hepatitis B infection among healthcare students of all academic years because they are indulged in clinical work since third year of their curriculum. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of all the students starting from 1st year to final year and the interns of MBBS, BDS, and nursing at KIIT University. The questions were obtained from a study performed in Turkey in 2010 and were modified by an infection control expert. Questions in multiple choice format were in English and it was a self-administered questionnaire consisting of three parts (knowledge, attitude, behavior). Then, ethical clearance for the study was obtained from the institutional ethical committee, KIMS. Subsequently, the students were well informed and explained about the study. Students who voluntarily wanted to participate were included in the study. Questionnaire containing 20 questions to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about hepatitis B was distributed among the students. Data were compiled and statistical analysis was done. Results: The response rate was 83% (N = 332). In our study, majority (96.99%) were aware of transmission of HBV infection by blood, body fluid, and secretion. The level of knowledge was higher in MBBS students than BDS and nursing students (MBBS > BDS > nursing). Attitude toward the disease was higher in MBBS students than BDS and nursing students (MBBS > BDS > nursing), whereas behavior was higher in BDS students than MBBS and nursing students (BDS > MBBS > nursing). Conclusion: In our study, overall knowledge and attitude toward hepatitis B infection were higher in MBBS students than in dental and nursing students, whereas behavior of dental students toward the disease was quite satisfactory than MBBS and nursing students.
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Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls
Preeti Kambalyal, Prabhuraj Kambalyal, Shital Hungund
December 2015, 5(8):68-73
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.171595  PMID:26942120
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontitis (Group IV), and 8 smokers with aggressive periodontitis (Group V). Clinical measurements and non-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained and analyzed for Ca levels by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer. Results: When salivary Ca values were compared between the groups, they showed statistically significant values (P < 0.001) with the highest mean Ca level in Group IV and Group V, which include smokers with chronic periodontitis and smokers with aggressive periodontitis, respectively, than in other groups. Between groups II and III also, the mean salivary Ca level was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with higher mean salivary Ca in non-smokers having chronic periodontitis than in non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions: The present study showed that smokers having chronic periodontitis as well as smokers having aggressive periodontitis have higher salivary calcium levels. Also, patients with aggressive periodontitis were found to have lesser salivary calcium level than chronic periodontitis patients by ion-selective electrolyte analyzer.
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Comparative evaluation of shear bond strengths of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging – An in vitro study
Laju Sreekala, Mahesh Narayanan, Sunil M Eerali, Susil M Eerali, Joju Varghese, AI Zainaba Fathima
December 2015, 5(8):74-81
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.171590  PMID:26942121
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to base metal alloy and zirconia substructures before and after aging. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the failure pattern. Materials and Methods: Twenty rectangular blocks (9 mm length × 4 mm height × 4 mm width) of base metal alloy (Bellabond plus, Bego, Germany) and zirconia (Will ceramZ zirconia K block ) were fabricated for shear bond strength test. Surface of the base metal alloy block (4 mm × 4 mm area) was veneered with corresponding veneering porcelain (Ivoclar, IPS classic, vivadent). Similarly ,surface of the zirconia rectangular block (4 mm × 4 mm) was veneered with corresponding veneering ceramic (Cercon ceram kiss, Degudent).Out of forty rectangular porcelain veneered core specimen, ten porcelain veneered base metal alloy specimen and ten porcelain veneered zirconia specimen were immersed in water at 37°C for one month to simulate the oral environment. Results: On comparison , the highest shear bond strength value was obtained in porcelain veneered base metal alloy before aging group followed by porcelain veneered base metal alloy after aging group, Porcelain veneered zirconia before aging group, porcelain veneered zirconia after aging group. SEM analysis revealed predominantly cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups. Conclusion: Porcelain veneered base metal alloy samples showed highest shear bond strength than porcelain veneered zirconia samples. Study concluded that aging had an influence on shear bond strength. Shear bond strength was found to be decreasing after aging. SEM analysis revealed cohesive failure of veneering ceramic in all groups suggestive of higher bond strength of the interface than cohesive strength of ceramic. Hence, it was concluded that veneering ceramic was the weakest link.
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Analysis of the greater palatine foramen in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography technology
Georges Aoun, Ibrahim Nasseh, Sayde Sokhn, Maria Saadeh
December 2015, 5(8):82-88
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.171594  PMID:26942122
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the diameter and the position of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) in relation to adjacent anatomical landmarks in the maxilla in a Lebanese population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) technology. Materials and Methods: CBCT images of 58 Lebanese adult patients were included in this study and a total of 116 GPF were evaluated bilaterally. The diameter of the GPF and its position relative to the maxillary molars, and distances to the midline maxillary suture and to the anterior nasal spine were analyzed. Results: Of all foramina assessed, 41.38% were located opposite to the third molar, 29.31% were distal to it, 27.59% were between the second and the third, and only 1.72% were opposite to the second. The average diameter was 5.633 mm on the right and 5.723 mm on the left, and the average distances to midline maxillary suture and anterior nasal spine were 16.228 mm and 48.294 mm on the right and 14.907 mm and 48.122 mm on the left, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we conclude that in Lebanese patients, the GPF location is variable, very rarely opposite to the second molar, and more closely related to the third, but may present mesial or distal to it in one-fourth of patients.
  1 3,594 160
Antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (tulsi extract, neem extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics: An in vitro study
Pradeep Muttagadur Chandrappa, Akash Dupper, Pragya Tripathi, Ramakrishna Arroju, Preeti Sharma, Konthoujam Sulochana
December 2015, 5(8):89-92
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172952  PMID:26942123
Background: Successful endodontic treatment depends on effective disinfection and complete sealing of root canal. Various medicaments are advised for disinfecting root canal, such as herbal and non-herbal medicaments. This study was done to assess the antimicrobial activity of herbal medicines (neem extract, tulsi extract) and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis in Endodontics. Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial action of different medicines. Sixty samples were segregated into four groups with 15 samples in each: Group I: chlorhexidine 2%, Group II: neem extract, Group III: tulsi extract, and Group IV: distilled water. The inhibition zones against E. faecalis were recorded and statistically assessed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test (P < 0.05). Results: Significant antibacterial effect against E. faecalis was observed with chlorhexidine followed by neem extract and tulsi extract. Conclusion: Herbal medicines seemed to be effective against E. faecalis compared to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate.
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Effectiveness of health education and behavioral intervention for tobacco de-addiction among degree students: A clinical trial
Uday Kumar Reddy, Rasool Karim Nizaro Siyo, Mohamed Abrar Ul Haque, Harsha Basavaraja, Bailore Lakshmikantha Guruprasanna Acharya, Darshan Devang Divakar
December 2015, 5(8):93-100
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172949  PMID:26942124
Background: Objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of tobacco use among the degree students of Oxford institutions in Bangalore city, offer a tobacco cessation intervention for tobacco users among the degree students, and assess the effectiveness of intervention by comparing with the control group. Materials and Methods: A randomized control trial was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation behavioral intervention offered to degree students of Oxford institutions in Bangalore city. Then were randomly selected and divided into 55 students in the study group (group A) and 60 students in the control group (group B). Results: The effect of intervention of tobacco cessation in group A showed an increase of 29.1% students who stopped using tobacco completely after intervention compared to 15% in group B, and the highest reduction of 21.8% change was noticed in the students using one to five tobacco products per day and the least reduction in percentage (1.8%) change was noticed in the students using one tobacco product per day. Conclusion: Findings from the present study suggest that the intervention has suggestive significance on tobacco intervention.
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Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study
Abdul Saheer, Pallavi Swami Kousalya, Rekha Raju, Radha Gubbihal
December 2015, 5(8):101-106
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172948  PMID:26942112
Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services.
  - 1,771 122
Postural awareness among dental students in Jizan, Saudi Arabia
Aruna Kanaparthy, Rosaiah Kanaparthy, Nezar Boreak
December 2015, 5(8):107-111
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172950  PMID:26942113
Objective: The study was conducted to assess the postural awareness of dental students in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Close-ended, self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection in the survey. The questionnaire was prepared by observing the positions of students working in the clinics and the common mistakes they make with regard to their postures. The questionnaires were distributed among the dental students who were present and reported to work in the clinics. Levels of postural awareness and the relationship between postural awareness and the degree of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among the students was evaluated. This study was carried out in the College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Jizan. Statistical Analysis: The level of knowledge of postural awareness was evaluated and correlated with the presence or absence of the MSDs. Categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 162 dental students from the age group of 20–25 years were included in the survey, of which 134 dentists responded (83%). When their postural awareness was evaluated, results showed that 89% of the students had poor-to-medium levels of postural awareness. The relation between postural awareness and prevalence of MSDs indicated that 75% of the students with poor awareness, 49% of the students with average awareness, and 40% of the students with good awareness have MSDs. The results were statistically significant (0.002127, which is <0.005) stating that better awareness about proper postures while working helps to minimize the risk of MSDs. Conclusion: Evaluation of levels of postural awareness showed that 21% of the students had poor postural awareness, 67% had average awareness, and 11% had good postural awareness. The analysis of results showed that those students with low-to-average postural awareness had significantly greater prevalence of MSDs.
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Comparing the efficacy of xylitol-containing and conventional chewing gums in reducing salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study
Rosa Haghgoo, Elahe Afshari, Tahere Ghanaat, Samaneh Aghazadeh
December 2015, 5(8):112-117
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172947  PMID:26942114
Objective: Dental caries is among the most common chronic diseases in humans. Streptococcus mutans is generally responsible for most cases of dental caries. The present study sought to compare the effects of xylitol-containing and conventional chewing gums on salivary levels of S. mutans. Materials and Methods: This study adopted a crossover design. Two type of chewing gums (one containing 70% xylitol and approved by the Iranian Dental Association, and another containing sucrose) were purchased. The participants were 32 individuals aged 18–35 years whose oral hygiene was categorized as moderate or poor based on a caries risk assessment table. Salivary levels of S. mutans were measured at baseline, after the first and second phases of chewing gums, and after the washout period. The measurements were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar (MSBA). Pairwise comparisons were then used to analyze the collected data. Results: Salivary levels of S. mutans in both groups were significantly higher during the two stages of chewing gum than in the washout period or baseline. Moreover, comparisons between the two types of gums suggested that chewing xylitol-containing gums led to greater reductions in S. mutans counts. This effect was more apparent in subjects with poor oral hygiene than in those with moderate oral hygiene. Conclusions: Xylitol-containing chewing gums are more effective than conventional gums in reducing salivary levels of S. mutans in individuals with poor–moderate oral hygiene.
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Oral health trends and service utilization at a rural outreach dental clinic, Udo, Southern Nigeria
Sunny Ajimen Okeigbemen, Chiwendu Ukachi Nnawuihe
December 2015, 5(8):118-122
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172951  PMID:26942115
Background: The oral disease burden in Nigerian rural areas is considered high with limited dental services. Normative need assessment to facilitate oral health promotion and interventional activities is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dental service utilization and trends of patents attending a rural outreach dental clinic.Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using data from clinical records of patients seen over a period of 54 months at a rural outreach dental clinic of comprehensive health center, Udo, Edo State, and were analyzed for descriptive variables with Chi-square test and P value set at ≤0.05 significance. Results: One hundred and sixty four (164) patients [males = 74 (45.1%), females = 90 (54.9%)] were seen with a mean age of 36.15 ± 18.05 years. The major reason for clinic visit was due to dental caries (sequelae) and condition representing 43.3% and 34.8%, respectively. Extractions (41.5%) and scaling and polishing (S and P) (21.3%) accounted for the most frequently provided treatment. Almost 20% patients did not receive any form of treatment. Conclusion: The study revealed a low health seeking behavior, low utilization of dental services among the rural dwellers and need for oral health awareness, periodic screening, and preventive approach in the rural population through more frequent outreach visits of dental personnel resident in the community.
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Knowledge, value, opinion and practice about usage of pit and fissure sealant among dental professionals in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
N Nagappan, M Dinesh Dhamodhar, MG Nithin, E Senthil Kumar
December 2015, 5(8):123-128
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172946  PMID:26942116
Aim: A study was aimed to assess the knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding the use of dental sealants among private dental practitioners in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A self-administrated questionnaire were distributed to 192 private dental practitioners in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India by using simple random sampling. A convenience sampling technique was employed. The questionnaire consisted of 28 items, which included information about knowledge, value, opinion, and practice regarding dental sealants. The questionnaire was obtained from the study by San Martin et al. 2013 and Kailash Asawa et al. 2014. Frequency distribution was tabulated. For frequency distribution strongly, strongly agree, and agree were combined as “agree” and strongly disagree and disagree were combined as “disagree.” There were no changes in “neutral.” Results: Among the 196 study subjects 56.2% were males and 43.8% were females with their clinical experience of 52.1% for <5 years, 35.4% for 5–10 years, and 13.5% for <15 years. The mean scores for knowledge, value, opinion, and practice were 41.8 ± 3.7, 18.7 ± 2.8, 18.1 ± 1.4, and 12.9 ± 2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that dental practitioners had satisfactory knowledge about pit and fissure sealant and had neutral attitudes about sealants being effective. Dental practitioners adequately used the pit and fissure sealants but they did not follow the standardized procedures and specific guidelines.
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A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study
Taranatha Mahantesha, Asha Nara, Parveen Reddy Kumari, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni Halemani, Vinutna Buddiga, Mythri Sarpangala
December 2015, 5(8):129-132
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.172953  PMID:26942117
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. Results: The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40.The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Conclusion: Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score .Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children.
  - 2,081 173
Effect of neutral zone technique on marginal bone loss around implant-supported overdentures
Mahmoud Darwish, Mohammad Zakaria Nassani, Kusai Baroudi
December 2015, 5(8):57-62
DOI:10.4103/2231-0762.164786  PMID:26942118
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare changes in marginal bone height around immediately loaded implants supporting a mandibular overdenture constructed according to the neutral zone technique with changes around overdentures constructed according to the conventional methods. Materials and Methods: Twelve completely edentulous male patients were randomly allocated to two equal groups of patients. Patients in the first group received conventionally constructed complete dentures and patients in the second group received complete dentures constructed using the neutral zone record. All the patients received two single-piece titanium implants placed bilaterally in the mandibular canine regions using flapless surgery, which were then immediately loaded by the dentures. Marginal bone height was radiographically evaluated at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months after implant loading. Results: There was a significant loss in marginal bone height around the supporting implants in each study group. However, no significant differences in marginal bone height were recorded between the study groups over the observation period (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Marginal bone height changes induced by overdentures constructed with neutral zone technique on immediately loaded implants are not different from those changes induced by overdentures constructed with a conventional method.
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