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   2017| November-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 6  
    Online since December 29, 2017

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants: A retrospective study
Sonal Raikar, Pratim Talukdar, Sarala Kumari, Sangram Kumar Panda, Vinni Mary Oommen, Arvind Prasad
November-December 2017, 7(6):351-355
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_380_17  
Aims and Objectives: Dental implants have emerged as new treatment modality for the majority of patients and are expected to play a significant role in oral rehabilitation in the future. The present study was conducted to assess various factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics. In this study, 5200 patients with dental implants which were placed during June 2008–April 2015 were included. Exclusion criteria were patients with hormonal imbalance, patients with chronic infectious disease, patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, pregnant women, drug and alcohol addicts, and patients with severe periodontal diseases. Parameters such as name, age, gender, length of implant, diameter of implant, location of implant, and bone quality were recorded. Data were tabulated and statistically evaluated with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA. Results: Out of 5200 patients, 2800 were males and 2400 females. Maximum implants failures (55) were seen in age group above 60 years of age (males – 550, females –700). Age group <40 years (males – 750, females – 550) showed 20 failed implants. Age group 41–60 years (males – 1500, females – 1150) showed 45 failed implants. The difference was nonsignificant (P = 0.21). Maximum implant failure was seen in implants with length >11.5 mm (40/700) followed by implants with <10 mm (20/1650) and 10–11.5 mm (60/2850). The difference was significant (P < 0.05). Maximum implants failure (30/1000) was seen in implants with diameter <3.75 mm followed by implants with diameter >4.5 mm (16/1600) and implants with diameter 3.75–4.5 mm (50/2600). The Chi-square test showed significant results (P < 0.05). Mandibular posterior showed 3.3% implants failure, maxillary posterior revealed 2.2%, maxillary anterior showed 2.1%, and mandibular anterior showed 1% failure rate; this difference was significant (P < 0.05). Type I bone showed 0.3% implant failure, Type II showed 1.95%, Type III showed 3%, and Type IV revealed 0.8% failure rate; this difference was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Age, length of implant, diameter of implant, bone quality, and region of implant are factors determining the survival rate of implants. We found that implant above 11.5 mm length, and with diameter <3.75 mm, placed in the mandibular posterior region, in Type III bone showed maximum failures.
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The effect of health education program based on health belief model on oral health behaviors in pregnant women of Fasa city, Fars province, south of Iran
Ali Khani Jeihooni, Hassan Jamshidi, Seyyed Mansour Kashfi, Abolghasem Avand, Zahra Khiyali
November-December 2017, 7(6):336-343
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_339_17  
Aims and Objectives: Pregnant women are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of health education program based on health belief model (HBM) on oral and dental hygiene behaviors in pregnant women in Fasa city. Materials and Methods: This is a clinical trial study carried out on 110 pregnant women selected using random sampling method from health centers in Fasa city in 2016 (55 patients in the experimental group and 55 individuals in control group). Data collection with questionnaire was based on construct HBM, as well as their performance about oral health. At first, two groups completed the questionnaires. And then, the intervention was conducted for the experimental group based on HBM. Four months after intervention, two groups completed the questionnaires twice. To analyze the collected data, the researchers used SPSS version 22 and descriptive and analytical statistics tests such as independent t-test and Chi-square and Mann–Whitney test. Results: The age of the pregnant mothers was 28.25 ± 3.02 years in the experimental group and 27.8 ± 4.20 years in the control group. Compared to the control group, the experimental group showed a significant increase in their knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, cues to action, and performance and decrease in perceived barriers 4 months after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying the HBM is very effective for developing an educational program for oral health in pregnant women. Moreover, in the implementation of these programs, control, monitoring, and follow-up educational are recommended.
  10 4,362 342
Effectiveness of intellectual distraction on gagging and anxiety management in children: A prospective clinical study
Nahla Nassif Debs, Samia Aboujaoude
November-December 2017, 7(6):315-320
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_397_17  
Objectives: The aim of the present prospective study is to determine the effect of an intellectual colored game (ICG) on the severity of gag reflex (GR) and anxiety in children during dental alginate impression. Materials and Methods: Forty-one children, aging between 5 and 11 years, having a GR varying from normal to moderate had upper alginate impressions. The children's anxiety was evaluated with a facial image scale (FIS) before (T0) and after first failed impression (T1), then, after playing an intellectual colored game (ICG) at T2, while taking an upper alginate impression. Results: 42.9 % of the children had a gag reflex of stage 2 and 31.0 % a facial scale of 3. Initial GR was not significantly associated with the final success of the impression (P =0.260) whereas final impression success was strongly associated with FIS (P <0.001). There was a statistically significant reduction in median GR score from T0 to T2 (P < 0.001) and FIS dropped significantly at T2 with ICG (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study highlights the clinical performance of the intellectual distraction approach in GR management
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Knowledge, attitude, and perceived confidence in the management of medical emergencies in the dental office: A survey among the dental students and interns
Haifa Fahad Albelaihi, Athar Ibrahim Alweneen, Abeer Ettish, Faleh Ali Alshahrani
November-December 2017, 7(6):364-369
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_414_17  
Aims and Objectives: Many situations in the dental office can provoke medical emergencies. Lack of training and inability to overcome the medical emergencies can lead to serious consequences and legal actions. The aim of the study is to investigate and assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceived confidence of dental students and interns in the management of medical emergency. Materials and Methods: A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to 153 of the undergraduate dental students and interns in Qassim province. Questionnaire consisted of nineteen questions pertaining to knowledge and awareness regarding syncope, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), intravenous drugs, measuring vital signs, and handling situation of aspiration of a foreign body, bleeding, and choking. Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. Results: Fifty-seven percent was the response rate received from the questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent and 30% of the participants inquired about the medical history and vital signs before dental treatment, respectively. Only 37% of participants were confident to handle any medical emergency in the dental office. Seventy percent knew the correct location of chest compression and 67% were familiar about the right compression ventilation ratio showing significant difference between academic years and interns (P = 0.003). Females were significantly more aware about the management of bleeding after extraction than the males (65%, and 47%, respectively; P = 0.035). Thirty-five percent and 53% chose the correct management to relieve choking in responsive and unresponsive adult or child, respectively. A total of 28% of the participants reported syncope as the most common emergency situation. Conclusion: Participants were lacking confidence in handling medical emergencies even though the majority of them inquired the medical history. Most of them have a good knowledge regarding CPR, but regarding airway obstruction, the knowledge was not at an acceptable level. Annual basic life support and emergency courses should be mandatory in dental teaching curriculum.
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Knowledge, attitude, and awareness among diabetic patients in Davangere about the association between diabetes and periodontal disease
Shruthi Mavinahally Shanmukappa, Priyadarshini Nadig, Rekha Puttannavar, Zeenath Ambareen, Triveni Mavinkote Gowda, Dhoom Singh Mehta
November-December 2017, 7(6):381-388
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_390_17  
Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major public health problems. Association of diabetes and periodontitis is widely proven and can influence each other in the development and progression of the disease and its complications, which are largely preventable. Hence, if data could be collected on the knowledge and awareness about the association between DM and periodontal disease, the results could be applied in creating public health campaigns and can bring about lifestyle modification among people. The aim of the present study is to assess the awareness, attitude, and practices of diabetic patients regarding their periodontal health in Davangere city with the objective of enhancing dental health education for this population, which would upgrade their knowledge and awareness. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 600 diabetic patients from various clinics. A time limit of 3 months was set for the data collection which was then subjected to statistical software SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, MedCalc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0, and R environment version 2.11.1 for statistical analysis. Results: On correlation of gender and education with overall knowledge of association between periodontal disease and DM, females and participants below secondary school education and lower duration of DM were significantly associated with lack of knowledge. Other questions revealed limited awareness, sources, and need for more information about this association and depicted poor knowledge and attitude toward the oral health. Conclusion: Dental professionals need to create awareness about the importance of maintaining good oral health influencing overall general health in diabetic patients. Oral screening and referral by health professionals to dentists may benefit diabetic patients by improving access to dental care.
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Oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices of Sharjah mothers of preschool children, United Arab Emirates
Noura Mahmoud, Mawlood Kowash, Iyad Hussein, Amar Hassan, Manal Al Halabi
November-December 2017, 7(6):308-314
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_310_17  
Objective: The improvement of children's oral health, a world global health target, is essential to general health and quality of life. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of mothers toward their children's oral health in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional interview-based study was conducted among 383 mothers of preschool children (average age 3.49 [+1.63 years]) attending Sharjah Dental Center, UAE. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software for Windows, version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Adequate knowledge was found among 58.2% of mothers, 99% exhibited excellent attitude, and only 20% followed good practices toward their children's oral health. Poor knowledge and practice of mothers were significantly associated with mothers' occupation and education. Employed mothers had a significantly higher score of knowledge. Mothers with secondary education and university qualifications had significantly higher scores of practice compared with mothers with primary education. Conclusions: Although mothers had better than average knowledge and excellent attitude toward their children's oral health issues; most of them carried out improper practices. Mothers' educational and employment backgrounds were significant influencing factors.
  5 3,869 330
Fracture resistance of tilted premolars restored with different post-core systems
Khalid M Abdelaziz, Ashraf A Khalil, Ibrahim Y Alsalhi, Ali J Almufarrij, Ahmed Y Mojathel
November-December 2017, 7(6):344-350
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_382_17  
Aims and Objective: To assess the effect of root tilt on the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically-treated premolars restored with different post-core systems. Materials and Methods: Ninety endodontically-treated premolars were mounted in acrylic blocks with 0°, 12°, and 24° axial root tilt. Teeth in each group were restored in three subgroups with cast post-core, readymade metal posts and composite cores, and fiber post and composite cores. Crowns of all teeth were prepared coinciding with the long axis of the acrylic blocks to receive all-ceramic crowns. All restored teeth were stressed to record the maximum load at failure and the associated failure pattern. The collected data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, Tukey's, and Kruskal–Wallis tests at α = 0.05 on past software to detect any differences between subgroups. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated significant differences between the tested subgroups (ANOVA, P = 3.86). Further analysis showed significant difference between all test subgroups and the control (Tukey's, P < 0.05). In general, teeth with 0° tilt seemed more resistant to fracture than the tilted ones. For all groups, teeth restored with fiber post and composite cores (SG3) were more resistant to fracture compared to other post-core systems (SG1 and SG2) (Tukey's, P < 0.05). The root fracture was the most commonly seen mode of failure. Conclusions: Root tilting usually affects the fracture resistance of teeth restored with post-core systems. The fiber post and composite cores seemed to be the best choice to restore teeth with different root tilting possibilities.
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Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of different post systems
Mavari Karibasappa Saritha, Uttam Paul, Kiran Keswani, Ashu Jhamb, Swapnil Haribhau Mhatre, Pradyumna Kumar Sahoo
November-December 2017, 7(6):356-359
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_413_17  
Aim: The study was done to evaluate the fracture resistance of carbon, glass fiber, and zirconia posts. Materials and Methods: Forty-five human premolars indicated for orthodontic extraction were subjected to root canal treatment and obturated with gutta-percha. All the teeth were decoronated and mounted in acrylic block. Then, teeth were equally divided into three groups: (a) carbon, (b) glass fiber, and (c) zirconia post group. Post space was prepared and particular post was cemented in post space. Core buildup was made with composite. A compressive load was applied using universal testing machine and fracture force was measured in MPa. The data were tabulated, and statistical evaluation was done using statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 21.0., IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA, using one-way analysis of variance for analysis of difference and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Zirconia endodontic post had good fracture resistance (489.2 MPa) when compared with carbon (258.4 MPa) and glass fiber-reinforced post (348.7 MPa). Fracture resistance was statistically significant between test groups P>0.001. Conclusion: The present study concluded that zirconia had good fracture resistance compared to glass fiber and carbon posts.
  4 3,331 256
Pain perception and personality trait toward orthodontic treatment
Jaideep Singh, Pankaj Dixit, Prerana Singh, Neal Bharat Kedia, Manish Kumar Tiwari, Amit Kumar
November-December 2017, 7(6):377-380
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_419_17  
Aim: The study was done to evaluate the pain perception, attitude, and personality trait of the patient toward orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire survey, 100 patients were divided into Group 1, 150 (75 males and 75 females) as untreated group and Group 2, 150 as treated group (75 males and 75 females). Evaluation of the patients was done based on pain perception, attitude, and personality trait. Set of questionnaire was used to assess attitude and pain perception on visual analog scale. The data were tabulated, and statistical evaluation was done using statistical software IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, (Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) using t-test and Tukey's test. Results: The mean pain perception for Group 1 was 4.8 ± 1.30 and 4.17 ± 1.58 in Group 2; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.26). The mean value for attitude in Group 1 was 3.57 ± 1.21, and in Group 2, it was 3.39 ± 1.60 (P = 0.09). There was statistically significant difference in pain perception between low (L) level to high level (H) neuroticism (P = 0.009). There was significant difference (P = 0.021) in pain for conscientiousness from very low to very high levels which is directly proportional. Conclusion: The present study indicated that attitude, personality traits, and pain perception have a definite role in patient cooperation and success of orthodontic treatment.
  3 2,180 216
Perception of professional female college students towards smile arc types and outlook about their appearance
Ibrahim AlShahrani
November-December 2017, 7(6):329-335
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_398_17  
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the perception of female students about the type of smile arc as well as their outlook about different parameters of esthetics. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted among female students of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. One section of the questionnaire contained pictures having three types of smile arc wherein the respondents had to select any response ranging from 1 to 4 (1 for beautiful, 2 for good, 3 for average, and 4 for poor); besides it included 12 questions regarding the viewpoints of respondents about their smile and dental esthetics. The collected data were analyzed using the statistical package for social services version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA, 2001). Results: The dental students accounted for least mean score of 1.807 ± 0.8174 for consonant smile arc while it was 2.692 ± 0.8053 and 2.235 ± 0.9074 for information technology (IT) and medical students, respectively. When the individuals were asked whether they had a pleasant smile or not; only 53.8% of the dental students, 76.9% of the IT students, and 66.7% of the medical students responded positively. Conclusion: It was concluded that most of the female dental students were able to identify the consonant smile arc as being more beautiful than the flat and reverse smile arcs whereas lesser medical and IT students could perceive the smile arcs in the same manner. It was also observed that almost all the study participants were quite conscious about their smile attractiveness and dental esthetics.
  1 2,302 251
Effect of popping chocolate and candy on enamel microhardness of primary and permanent teeth
Mitra Tabari, Homayoon Alaghemand, Durdi Qujeq, Elahe Mohammadi
November-December 2017, 7(6):370-376
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_386_17  
Aims and Objectives: Dental erosion is a common disease in children. Food diets, due to high amounts of juice, soft drinks, chewing gum, and acidic chocolate, are one of the most important risk factors in erosive processes among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of candy and chocolate on the microhardness of tooth enamel. Materials and Methods: Two types of popping candy and one type of popping chocolate were used in this study. Thirty-three healthy permanent premolar teeth and 33 primary incisor teeth (A or B) were selected. Five grams of each popping chocolate or candy was dissolved with 2 ml of artificial saliva. Subsequently, their pH and titrable acidity (TA) as well as microhardness and surface roughness of enamel were examined in the laboratory. Data were analyzed and evaluated Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY through independent t-test, paired t-test, Tukey test, and ANOVA. Results: The results of this study showed that only the pH of the candies was below the critical pH of the enamel (5.5) and their TA was B = 0.20 and C = 0.21. The most significant effect on the enamel microhardness of the permanent and primary teeth was by the following types of candy: orange flavor (C), strawberry flavor (B), and chocolate (A), respectively. This difference was significant (P < 0.001) and the surface roughness increased after exposure. Conclusions: This study showed that popping chocolate and candy reduces microhardness of enamel.
  1 2,517 271
Expression of vascular endothelial-cadherin in mucoepidermoid carcinoma: Role in cancer development
Soussan Irani, Arash Dehghan
November-December 2017, 7(6):301-307
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_323_17  
Objectives: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) accounts for 35% of all malignant salivary gland tumors. Previous investigations have shown that vasculogenic mimicry (VM) exists in many cancers which can be used as a prognostic factor of poor prognosis. Elevated expression level of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin has been implicated in cancer neovascularization, growth, and progression. The current study aimed to study the presence of VE-cadherin in VM channels and tumor cells in different grades of MEC. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 MEC samples (21 samples in each grade) were collected from the archive of pathology department of Besat Educational Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, from 2002 to 2016. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to confirm the previous diagnosis. The specimens were then processed for immunohistochemistry analysis. Then, periodic acid–Schiff staining was performed. Analyses were conducted through SPSS software version 22.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used to examine the differences between categorical variables. Significance level was set at 0.05. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the co-localization of the marker. Results: A total of 63 samples (35 men; 55.6%, and 28 women; 44.4%) were used for immunohistochemical study. There were statistically significant differences between tumor grade and the expression levels of VE-cadherin (P = 0.000), between tumor grade and VM formation (P = 0.000), and also between tumor grade and microvessel density (MVD) (P = 0.000). Additionally, there was a strong positive correlation between tumor grade and VE-cadherin expression level (Pearson's r = 0.875, P < 0.000). Conclusions: Our results may disclose a definite relationship between VE-cadherin expression level, VM, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cells, and MVD in MEC samples. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that VE-cadherin is related to angiogenesis and VM formation in MECs.
  1 2,326 263
Orthodontics and dental anatomy: Three-dimensional scanner contribution
Fidele Nabbout, Pascal Baron
November-December 2017, 7(6):321-328
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_394_17  
Aims and Objectives: The objective of this article is to focus on the dental anatomy, its influence on therapeutic choices, and decision in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A sample of 80 subjects was selected and analyzed. Through the usage of the three-dimensional scanner with the C2000-Cepha and Cepha3DT software, it is now possible to calculate the volume and the dimensions of both crown and root of each tooth and compare them to the literature. Data were collected and statistically evaluated with the StatView software (version 5.0). Results: These references values were compared with those known in the literature redefining our approaches to treatment in orthodontics. Conclusion: The individual anatomical data either unique or in a group of teeth give new insights on the orthodontic therapeutic options.
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The relationship between number of natural teeth and chewing qat habit among adult Yemeni people in Sana'a: A pilot study
Sakhr A Murshid, Mohammed A Al-Labani
November-December 2017, 7(6):360-363
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_369_17  
Aims and Objectives: Several studies have reported associations between the habit of chewing qat and the deterioration of periodontal health among adults in Yemen; however, qat's effect on the number of teeth has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between the number of natural teeth and qat-chewing status among Yemeni participants. Materials and Methods: The participants were interviewed with a structured questionnaire by a researcher on the day of the dental check-up. The surveyed items were age, sex, chewing-qat status (nonchewer; current chewer, nonsmoker; current chewer and smoker; current chewer, ex-smoker; ex-chewer, never smoked; ex-chewer and smoker). The dental examination was conducted with dental mirrors by a single examiner under sufficient artificial light. A linear regression was performed, stratified by sex, with the number of natural teeth as the dependent variable and with age and qat status as independent variables using SAS/STAT software. Results: Results show that age was a significant factor for both males and females having few natural teeth. Females had a higher tooth loss than males. The habit of chewing qat did not affect the number of natural teeth for both males and females. In males, a small, but not significant, relationship between chewing-qat status and the number of natural teeth was found. All smokers were qat chewers. Conclusions: This study highlights for the first time the relationship between having fewer teeth and the habit of chewing qat and provides useful findings for dental health workers to advise people about the benefits of cessation of both qat chewing and smoking.
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