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   2017| October  | Volume 7 | Issue 8  
    Online since October 30, 2017

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Orofacial bacterial infectious diseases: An update
Soussan Irani
October 2017, 7(8):61-67
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_290_17  PMID:29184830
Objectives: Most of the oral infections with odontogenic origin are very common and can be treated by tooth extraction, endodontic therapy, or surgical treatment. Other infectious lesions are the manifestations of systemic diseases such as tuberculosis and syphilis. Skin and underlying subcutaneous tissue, fascia, or muscle is also involved with infectious diseases which range from superficial epidermal infections to very serious necrotizing fasciitis. Materials and Methods: An extensive literature in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus search was performed from 1980 to 2017. All related articles were analyzed. Results: Most oral infections have odontogenic origin. Skin and the underlying subcutaneous tissue, fascia, or muscles are also involved with infectious diseases which range from superficial epidermal infections to very serious necrotizing fasciitis. Conclusions: These facts prove that the interaction between the oral cavity, face skin, and the other organs can risk the people's life. The establishment of a correct diagnosis and recognition of clinical findings are the crucial steps to support and improve professional orofacial health status.
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Correlation of perceived self-rated oral health status with various dental health and awareness factors
Sunil Babu Kotha, Maham Chaudhary, Shayma Terkawi, Maram Ahmed, Shroog Naji Ghabban, Rohit Ashok Antony Fernandez
October 2017, 7(8):119-124
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_304_17  PMID:29184839
Aims and Objectives: Self-rated oral health is the key element that has a greater effect on quality of life and found to be authentic and logical to consider this as an indicator for overall oral health status. The aim was to investigate and identify the impact of various social and clinical factors on the perceived self-rated oral health status (PSR-OHS). Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed 600 patients seeking information for age, gender, nationality, educational level, and their last dental visit followed by 15 questions related to social factors (patient self-rated oral health, patient-dentist communication, literacy level of the patient, and dental neglect) followed by estimating the clinical oral health status (decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT] scores as per WHO norms). Results: The results were estimated by a single five-point-response-scale question dichotomized into poor and good self-rated oral health. The average mean age for participation in the study is 32.5 years and found to be highly significant (P < 0.01) with inverse relation indicating that younger patients give better PSR-OHS. There were no significant differences in PSR-OHS among other demographic factors. Patients visiting the dentist recently found to be confident about their PSR-OHS and are statistically significant. Pearson correlating scores of social factors and the DMFT scores most concerned in the present study have a significant relation with self-rated oral health status. Conclusions: PSR-OHS is governed by various dental health and awareness factors. It can be used as an important tool by a clinician to assess the clinical examination results which helps to achieve more effective time and patient management.
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Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Indonesia version of the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children
Yuanita Lely Rachmawati, Alisa Novianty Pratiwi, Diah Ayu Maharani
October 2017, 7(8):75-81
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_272_17  PMID:29184832
Objective: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaires have been administered to children older than 6 years. Currently, the scale of oral health outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) has been used to determine the OHRQoL through self-reports and parental proxy reports of children aged <6 years. This study was conducted to estimate the psychometric reliability and validity after adapting the SOHO-5 to the Indonesian language. Materials and Methods: The cross-cultural adaptation was tested in children aged 5 years old and their parents. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were measured among 161 kindergarten children in Jakarta, along with a clinical examination for dental caries. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency were 0.89 and 0.86 for child's self-reports and parental reports, respectively. The test-retest reliability results were excellent based on repeated administrations in 27 children; the intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.81 and 0.94 for the parental reports and child's self-reports, respectively. No corrected item-total correlation value was lower than 0.30, allowing all items in the instrument to be included for data analyses. The construct validity of the child's self-reports showed that the Indonesian SOHO-5 total score was significantly associated only with the presence of dental caries (P < 0.001). The construct validity of the parental reports described that the SOHO-5 total score was significantly associated with proxy-rated oral health, the child's perceived dental treatment and satisfaction with the child's oral health (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed the Indonesian version of SOHO-5 is a reliable and valid OHRQoL measure for 5-year-old Indonesian children.
  6 3,261 344
Perceived stress among French dental students and their opinion about education curriculum and pedagogy
Camille Inquimbert, Paul Tramini, Ivan Alsina, Jean Valcarcel, Nicolas Giraudeau
October 2017, 7(8):92-98
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_257_17  PMID:29184835
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the major sources of perceived stress and their relation to a student satisfaction questionnaire about the curriculum and the pedagogy among French dental students. Materials and Methods: All dental students (n = 178) from years 4 to 6 at the University of Montpellier (France) participated in this exploratory survey. In spring 2016, a 3-part questionnaire was distributed during clinical sessions: the first part asked about sociodemographic and living conditions, the second part aimed to assess the students' perceived stress (Dental Environmental Stress questionnaire), and the third part was a satisfaction questionnaire exploring the clinical organization and the teaching methodologies (Student Course Experience Questionnaire). A Spearman's correlation test and a principal component analysis were used to assess the relation between the variables of the questionnaire. Results: The response rate was 99.4%. The most stressful items were “the number of tasks to be performed during clinical practice,” “the waiting time before opinion from teachers,” and “the administrative part and computer problems.” Fifty-four percent of the students claimed to be satisfied with their studies, showing a score of seven or higher. There was a negative correlation between the level of student satisfaction and the level of perceived stress. Conclusion: Although most of the students were globally satisfied with their curriculum, this study highlighted dysfunctions in the clinical education with a level of stress correlated with the student's dissatisfaction. Most of all, students found that examinations were too stressful and that the clinical requested task quotas were overestimated.
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A comparative evaluation of effect of reinforced autopolymerizing resin on the flexural strength of repaired heat-polymerized denture base resin before and after thermocycling
Virender Kumar, Lalit Kumar, Komal Sehgal, Kusum Datta, Bhupinder Pal
October 2017, 7(8):99-106
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_276_17  PMID:29184836
Aims and Objective: Denture fractures are a common problem in clinical practice. Despite the use of different reinforcement materials (metal wires, metal plates, and various types of fibers) for denture repairs, recurrent fractures are still common. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum flexural loads of the heat-polymerized denture base resin when repaired with autopolymerizing resin reinforced with relatively smaller diameter metal wires and glass fibers, before and after thermocycling. Materials and Methods: Heat polymerized rectangular specimens were fabricated and repaired with autopolymerized resin and different reinforcement materials. Stainless steel wires, coaxial wires, beta-titanium wires, and glass fibers were used as reinforcement materials. Metal wires were sandblasted before placing in the center of the specimen along with autopolymerizing resin. Control specimens were repaired without any reinforcements. Intact heat- and self-cure specimens were also prepared for comparison. Half of the specimens of each group were subjected to thermocycle stressing (5°C and 55°C, 30 s dwell time) for 2000 cycles. All the specimens, nonthermocycled as well as thermocycled, were then tested for flexural strength by using 3 point flexural test in Lloyd's Universal testing machine at 5 mm/min crosshead speed. The maximum flexural loads (N) for each specimen were recorded. The readings, thus obtained, were subjected to statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The metal wire reinforcements increased the flexural strength of repaired specimens, whereas, glass fiber reinforcement produced slightly lower flexural strength when compared to those of control specimens, i.e., repair without any reinforcement. The highest flexural strength was demonstrated by specimens repaired with coaxial wire reinforcements (50.01 and 43.77 N before and after thermocycling, respectively). The increase in flexural strength with the use of stainless steel wire (45.12 and 41.56 N) and beta-titanium wire reinforcements (45.54 and 42.61N) was insignificant. Conclusions: Coaxial wire reinforcement produced significantly higher flexural loads than control. Increase in strength with stainless steel wire and beta-titanium wire was insignificant, whereas glass fiber reinforcement reduced the strength.
  3 2,960 345
A cone beam computed tomography of the root canal morphology of maxillary anterior teeth in an institutional-based study in Chennai urban population: An in vitro study
Preetham Jain, Saravanakarthikeyan Balasubramanian, Jothilatha Sundaramurthy, Velmurugan Natanasabapathy
October 2017, 7(8):68-74
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_206_17  PMID:29184831
Aim: This study aims to investigate the root canal anatomy of human extracted permanent maxillary anterior teeth in patients reporting to our dental institution in Chennai using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: A total of 285 maxillary anterior teeth comprising of 100 central incisors, 85 lateral incisors, and 100 canines extracted from various patients reporting to our institution were studied. The number of roots and number of canals were assessed; following which, the root canal anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the canal pattern using CBCT. The collected data were analyzed using IBM. SPSS statistics software 23.0 version. Results: All the teeth examined were observed to be single rooted. All maxillary central incisors displayed Type I (100%) pattern whereas maxillary laterals and canines displayed canal variations. In maxillary laterals, Type I pattern (98%) was most prevalent followed by Type II (2%) configuration. Maxillary canines revealed a predominant Type I (96%) canal pattern followed by Type II (3%) and Type III (1%). Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was observed in maxillary anterior teeth among Chennai urban population in this institutional-based study. The most frequent canal pattern reported in the maxillary anterior dentition was Type I. Type II was observed in both maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines whereas Type III canal configuration was reported only in maxillary canines.
  3 3,180 288
Platelets and their pathways in dentistry: Systematic review
Faizan Ahmed Khan, Prathapan Parayaruthottam, Gazanafer Roshan, Vineeth Menon, Mariyam Fidha, Anthony Kevin Fernandes
October 2017, 7(8):55-60
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_284_17  PMID:29184829
Advancing research in medicine and technology has benefitted the mankind immensely with its contribution toward an improved life quality and increased life expectancy. The inability of a human body to autoregenerate has resulted in an increased demand for newer and healthier tissues and organs. Therefore, the restoration of naturally replicated tissue components has become a subject of interest for the scientific community lately. There was felt an intense quest for promoting strategies that could restore tissue regeneration and fuel the field of regenerative medicine. It was then the role of platelets was accounted for its wound healing and regenerative effects. Consequently, the use of platelet concentrates to improve wound healing, and bone formation was explored, which was considered to be possible because platelets contain high quantities of growth factors which would be able to stimulate cell proliferation, matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis, thereby establishing a new era of research with the successful application of innovative medical therapies focused on healing damaged tissues or regenerate the affected organs.
  3 3,830 386
Magnifying the senescence: Impact of oral health on quality of life and daily performance in geriatrics: A cross-sectional study
Kuldeep Dhama, Priyanka Razdan, Lav Kumar Niraj, Irfan Ali, Basavaraj Patthi, Gagandeep Kundra
October 2017, 7(8):113-118
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_277_17  PMID:29184838
Objective: The objective of the study is to study the behavior of the GOHAI as well as the OIDPs as potent measures in oral health related to quality of life in senior citizens. Materials and Methods: An outreach program-based cross-sectional study conducted in Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 340 study participants aged >60 years were selected from outreach program which were held between January 2017 and April 2017 based on inclusion and exclusion criterion. The dental health status and its influence on the self-perceived value of life was assessed using GOHAI and OIDP index among the participants. The data were estimated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square analysis and Pearson correlation were used to test the significance of the independent variables and the distinct the overall oral impact scores in groups with different dental status. Results: OIDP shows that most of the patients are suffering from eating food (57.74) and speaking clearly (45.96). GOHAI shows that most of the geriatric population with a lowest mean score of 2.12 and 2.13 were difficulty in chewing food and sorrowful with the condition of mouth and teeth. Similarly, a lower number of population of 3.68 had difficulty in swallowing food. Conclusion: The prevalence of OIDPs in this geriatric population was high. Oral impact mainly effect their quality or value of life leading to difficulty in eating and verbal communication.
  2 2,939 377
Comparison of coronal leakage in tooth preparation with two single file systems and three obturation techniques
Eshaghali Saberi, Shahram Shahraki Zahedani, Sediqe Ebrahimipour, Neda Valian
October 2017, 7(8):82-87
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_205_17  PMID:29184833
Aims and Objectives: Root canal preparation and obturation are of great importance in endodontics. Its purpose is to eliminate pulpal and periradicular disease. The aim of this study was to compare coronal bacterial microleakage in prepared root canals using Neoniti A1 and Reciproc files that obturated with lateral compaction, single cone gutta-percha, and hybrid (tapered cone/lateral compaction) methods. Materials and Methods: In this ex vivo study, a total of 110 single-rooted mandibular first premolars were choose and randomly divided into two study groups A and B (each 45) that one group was prepared with Reciproc and another with Neoniti A1 and negative and positive control groups (each 10). Each group divided into three subgroups of 15 each and obturated using a single cone, lateral compaction, and hybrid (tapered cone/lateral compaction) techniques. For evaluation of coronal leakage, “two-chamber setup” was used. The solution of enterococcus faecalis culture was injected in the upper chamber and incubated. If the bacteria pass through the canal and obturation materials, the lower chamber becomes turbid. TSB medium in the lower chamber (apex) were investigated every day in terms of occurrence of turbidity, and the duration of occurrence of leakage was recorded. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Data analysis showed that in each group the difference in percentages between subgroups was statistically significant (P = 0.003). So that the highest and the lowest amount of leakage in both groups were related to lateral compaction and hybrid techniques, respectively. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, independent of the instrument used for canal preparation, hybrid method and then single-cone technique, however, were more effective in the prevention of coronal leakage than lateral condensation technique.
  2 2,708 228
Effectiveness of an oral health education program for obstetrician/gynecologist residents at Tufts Medical Center
Devina Shah, Lily Parsi, Sara Bagher, Matthew Finkelman, Cheen Loo
October 2017, 7(8):107-112
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_195_17  PMID:29184837
Aim and Objectives: To assess Tufts Medical Center obstetrician/gynecologist (OB/GYN) residents' knowledge, beliefs, and previous training in oral health and to assess the effect of an oral health educational seminar on their knowledge and beliefs. Materials and Methods: A preseminar questionnaire was distributed to the residents. The same questionnaire was distributed immediately after the seminar and 3 months later. SPSS Version 21 was used for the data analysis. Results: Convenience sample of 25 residents were included in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age of participants was 29.08 (2.47) years. Only 1 (4%) participant reported receiving >8 h previous training in oral health and 7 (28%) reported receiving <1 h of training. The nonparametric Friedman test showed a statistically significant difference between administrations in terms of total score on knowledge-based questions (P < 0.001) and some of the belief-based questions. The post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction showed statistically significant improvement in the knowledge-based questions between pre- and post-seminar questionnaire (P = 0.002) and between preseminar and 3-month follow-up (P = 0.003). Conclusions: OB/GYN residents at Tufts Medical Center received limited training in oral health. Their knowledge improved significantly following the oral health educational seminar. Similar training modules can be brought to other OB/GYN residencies and OB/GYNs in an effort to enhance the symbiotic relationship between medical and dental professionals.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of upper-middle class toward the importance of a pediatric dentist
Gunmeen Sadana, Satinder Walia, Hashmit Kaur Rai, Neha Aggarwal, Ankita Bhargava
October 2017, 7(8):88-91
DOI:10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_249_17  PMID:29184834
Aims and Objectives: This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of upper middle class toward the importance of a pediatric dentist in the city of Amritsar, Punjab. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among the parents of children belonging to upper middle class in the city of Amritsar. This proposed study was assessed by the Institutional Ethical Committee (531/IDSR/2016) and their clearance was attained. A total of 950 parents were selected using a convenient sampling technique, and a self-made questionnaire was presented to them. Responses from the parents were evaluated in terms of numbers and percentages and were statistically analyzed using SPSS for Windows release 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Differences at the 5% level were accepted as being statistically significant. Results: The results of the study show limited knowledge about a pediatric dentist among the well-educated, well-placed, and economically sound citizens of Amritsar city. Consequently, the attitude and practices among this socioeconomic group are unconstructive and unprepared, respectively. Conclusion: Although the importance of taking a child to a pediatrician is a common practice among the upper and upper-middle classes of the society, it is clear that they do not give the same importance to a pediatric dentist, who is the pediatrician of dentistry.
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