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   2021| March-April  | Volume 11 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 15, 2021

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Role of hypnosis in dental treatment: A narrative review
Annapurny Venkiteswaran, Shobha Tandon
March-April 2021, 11(2):115-124
Aim: This narrative aims to outline the use of hypnosis in managing dental anxiety in during dental treatment. The PICO used to answer the objectives are (P) dental patients, (I) hypnosis, (C) conventional behaviour management techniques & (O) reduced pain/anxiety. Materials and Methods: An electronic search of three databases; PubMed, Scopus and EBSCOhost was conducted using the keywords “hypnosis or hypnotherapy” AND “dentistry or dental” between the year 2000 and 2020. A total of 19 studies were selected based on eligibility. Data extracted were study subject, design of study, parameters used to assess, type of hypnosis script used and the study outcome. Results: The studies show that hypnosis is effective in pain management and dental anxiety. It can also be used for improving compliance in patients who are wearing orthodontic appliances (Trakyali et al, 2008) and reducing salivary flow during dental treatment (Satlz et al, 2014). Conclusion: Hypnosis has the potential to be a useful tool in the management of children and adults.
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Effect of Zamzam water on microhardness of primary tooth enamel after erosion induced by Claritin syrup: An in-vitro study
Aseel Khalid Kufiyah, Ahmed Mohammad Hassan Bagasi, Sultan Mohammed Nawlalili, Duaa Saleh Bazaid, Abdullah Abdulrahman Marghalani, Adel Fathi
March-April 2021, 11(2):173-178
Background: Dental erosion is an irreversible damage to hard tissues in the mouth due to acid dissolution not induced by microorganisms. Oral medications contributed to the etiology of dental erosion. Among these medications, antihistamine-containing syrups were reported to have a considerable erosive effect on hard dental tissues. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of Zamzam water on the microhardness of primary tooth enamel after erosion induced by Claritin syrup. Materials and Methods: The present in-vitro study was conducted on 25 primary central incisor teeth. The labial surfaces of the specimens were prepared for microhardness testing. Baseline microhardness was measured first, then the samples were submerged in the erosive agent Claritin syrup, for 30 min every 12 h for 12 days. Thereafter, all the teeth were placed in Zamzam water for 30 min every 12 h for 12 days. The microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness tester and expressed as Vickers microhardness value (VH). The measurements were completed three times for the same sample: baseline, after erosion, and after Zamzam treatment. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The primary teeth included in this study showed a significant increase in their surface microhardness after Zamzam water treatment; the mean value of VH was increased from 33.12 ± 1.62 to 89.32 ± 8.52 (P-value <0.0001). Conclusion: Zamzam water could be introduced as a part of the management of dental erosion in the primary dentition.
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Impact of COVID-19 mandatory social isolation on the development of anxiety in Peruvian dentistry students: A logistic regression analysis
César Félix Cayo-Rojas, Manuel Jesús Castro-Mena, Regina de la Caridad Agramonte-Rosell, Ana Sixtina Aliaga-Mariñas, Marysela Irene Ladera-Castañeda, Luis Adolfo Cervantes-Ganoza, Luis Claudio Cervantes-Liñán
March-April 2021, 11(2):222-229
Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated much concern worldwide. Due to its high transmissibility, many young university students have had to carry out their academic activities in mandatory social isolation, which could generate excessive anxiety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiety levels in Peruvian dentistry students developed during COVID-19 mandatory social isolation. Materials and Methods: An analytical, observational, and transversal study was carried out in 403 dentistry students in the last two years from three Peruvian universities from May to July 2020. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to detect anxiety symptoms and their respective diagnoses. A logit model was used to evaluate the association of the variables: age group (X1), gender (X2), type of university (X3), and marital status (X4), with the anxiety levels of the students, considering a p-value less than 0.05. Results: The prevalence of anxiety resulted in 56.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.9–61.7) of 403 dentistry students. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the type of university was the only variable that demonstrated to have a significant influence on the development of anxiety with an odds ratio (OR = 1.98; CI: 1.29–3.02); whereas the other variables such as age group (OR = 0.77; CI: 0.49–1.20), gender (OR = 1.15; CI: 0.72–1.84), and marital status (OR = 0.75; CI: 0.35–1.60) were not considered factors that influenced the development of anxiety. Conclusion: More than a half of the Peruvian dentistry students from three universities showed mild-to-severe anxiety levels. Students from a private university have a 98% higher chance of developing anxiety in comparison to students from public universities. Other variables such as gender, age group, or marital status were not considered influencing factors to develop anxiety.
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Assessment of the plaque-induced gingivitis patient with and without hyaluronic acid and xylitol toothpaste
Haider J Talib, Hussein A Mousa, Athraa A Mahmood
March-April 2021, 11(2):138-143
Context: The traditional manner of treatment of periodontal tissue inflammation includes giving information about the problem to the patient, oral motivation, and mechanical scaling and root planning (SRP). Aims: We aimed at estimating the effect of using toothpaste with hyaluronic acid (Hyaluronan, HA) and xylitol (HAX) as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Sixty male patients who were in the age group of 20 to 35 years participated in this study. All of them endured 4 appointments, who suffered plaque-induced gingivitis, they distributed into 2 groups depending on the toothpaste variety: group 1 (G1): made up of 30 patients who consume toothpaste that contains HAX, while group 2 (G2): made up of 30 patients who consume toothpaste without HAX (placebo type). Clinical periodontal parameters (CPPs) for all of them were recorded, once at the beginning of the treatment besides four times throughout the treatment at weekly interims during all visits. Results: The means of plaque indices (PLI) and gingival indices (GI) decreased along with the sessions for both groups, where the initial means of PLI and GI (baseline) were 2.55 ± 0.14, 2.33 ± 0.15 for the G1, and 2.57 ± 0.13, 2.34 ± 0.16 for G2, respectively; whereas the least means shown at the fourth visit were 0.39 ± 0.05, 0.30 ± 0.06 for G1, and 0.71 ± 0.07, 0.61 ± 0.05 for G2, respectively. There was a reduction in the mean percent of bleeding on probing (BOP) score 1 for all visits in both groups. Finally, an intragroup comparison among dissimilar visits and intergroup comparisons for each visit showed highly significant differences at a P-value of ≤ 0.001 for PLI, GI, and BOP. Conclusions: Using toothpaste with or without HAX can decrease gingival inflammation; it can result in a higher improvement in the periodontal status of patients than toothpaste without HAX.
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Geographic information systems in spatial epidemiology: Unveiling new horizons in dental public health
Prajna Pramod Nayak, Jagadeesha B Pai, Nishu Singla, Krishnaraj S Somayaji, Dheeraj Kalra
March-April 2021, 11(2):125-131
Objectives: Research on the role of environment and place in various aspects of dental public health using geographic information systems (GIS) is escalating rapidly. Yet, the understanding of GIS and the analytical tools that it offers are still vaguely understood. This narrative review therefore draws from the utilization of GIS in the dental public health research. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PUBMED, and Scopus were searched using terms “spatial epidemiology,” “GIS,” “geographic information systems,” “health geography,” “environment public health tracking,” “spatial distribution,” “disease mapping,” “geographic correlation studies,” “cartography,” “big data,” and “disease clustering” through December 2019. Results: This review builds upon the prospects of GIS application in various aspects of dental public health. Studies were classified as: (1) GIS for mapping of disease, population at risk, and risk factors; (2) GIS in geographic correlation studies; (3) GIS for gauging healthcare accessibility and spatial distribution of healthcare providers. We also identified the commonly used GIS analytical techniques in oral epidemiology. Conclusions: We anticipate that this review will spur advancement in the utilization of spatial analytical techniques and GIS in the dental public health research.
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Is Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) valid for the Indian population?—A psychometric study
J Monisha, Elbe Peter, G Suja Ani
March-April 2021, 11(2):207-215
Objectives: A culturally adapted and validated Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) inventory helps to reliably compare patient perceptions among different populations. The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) evaluates the impact of dental aesthetics on OHRQoL. This study aimed to develop a regional version of PIDAQ (PIDAQMal) for the Indian population and to assess differences in perceptions due to malocclusion in different population groups. Materials and Methods: PIDAQMal was derived through the translation process and pilot-tested to assess test–retest reliability. Psychometric properties were tested on 285 subjects (31.2% males, 68.8% females; age range 18–25 years). Normative treatment need was assessed using Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN)-Dental Health Component and subjective assessment using IOTN-Aesthetic Component (AC) and Perception of Occlusion Scale (POS). PIDAQMal mean domain scores were compared with those of the previously validated versions to assess difference in perceptions. Results: Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were good (Cronbach’s α = 0.83–0.88; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.74–0.91). IOTN-AC and POS scores showed significant correlation with PIDAQMal scores ensuring convergent validity (P < 0.001). Discriminant validity was confirmed by statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) in PIDAQMal scores between subjects with no treatment need and moderate/definite need. Factor analysis derived four domains with one item showing cross-loading. Difference in mean domain scores among the previously validated versions of PIDAQ confirmed socio-cultural differences in perceptions due to malocclusion. Conclusion: PIDAQMal was found to be reliable and valid for the Indian subjects and can be used as a condition-specific OHRQoL measure. Socio-cultural differences in perceptions were brought to light using the translated scale.
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Development of modified dental beliefs scale among an adolescent rural population
Mithun Pai, Gururaghavendran Rajesh, Shweta Yellapurkar
March-April 2021, 11(2):132-137
Objective: Modified dental beliefs scale (MDBS), the shortened form of the R-DBS, was developed in a multicultural population. The factor structure of MDBS is not explored in an Indian context. The study explores psychometric properties and tests the fit of MDBS in a rural costal adolescent population in a vernacular language. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional analysis was carried out at two randomly selected rural Institutes in Costal Karnataka. Psychometric properties using a questionnaire were assessed. Validity and reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s α, split-half reliability, and test–retest analysis. Statistical analysis: Factor analysis with varimax rotation was employed to add a level of statistical precision and assist in the development the instrument. Two models were developed and tested for goodness of fit, root mean square error of approximation, and comparative fit. Results: The MDBS revealed a Cronbach’s α value of 0.76. Split-half reliability and Guttman split-half reliability were found to be 0.86 and 0.86, respectively. Test–retest reliability was found to be 0.74 (P < 0.01). Factor analysis revealed a five-factor solution explaining 67.8% of the variation in the scale. CFA revealed an appropriate goodness of fit for both models with better values for model two with chi‐square value was statistically significant and the ratio value (χ2/df = 7.8). Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the MDBS is a reliable and valid tool for the present population subset, with good fit for the second model with two separate latent variables.
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A comparison of undergraduate prosthodontic teaching of removable partial dentures in Saudi Arabian dental colleges with North American and Turkish dental schools
Hafiz Adawi, Saurabh Jain, Afnan Yahya M Atiah, Najwa Khaled Salwy, Lamyaa Ali M Khormi, Sumayyah Ahmed Adawi, Aeshah Y M Atiah, Aparna Aggarwal
March-April 2021, 11(2):144-151
Objectives: To meet the needs of society, it is obligatory to provide standardized skill training to undergraduate students in dental colleges. Surveys related to teaching curriculum are valuable means to evaluate education across the country. The aim of this study was to find the trends in the undergraduate teaching curriculum, by determining the differences in the teaching methods and principles of fabrication of removable partial dentures in dental colleges in Saudi Arabia and to compare these with the curriculum of North American dental schools and Turkish dental schools. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted in 23 dental colleges of Saudi Arabia. Descriptive data analysis was performed to synopsize the information. Results: Eighteen out of 23 (78.23%) dental colleges of Saudi Arabia answered the questionnaire; 88.9% of the colleges follow the practice of using custom trays for making final impressions; and 44.4% of the colleges use only polyvinyl siloxane for making final impressions. Semiadjustable articulators were commonly used for mounting study casts (61.1%) and master casts (66.6%). An in-house production laboratory is present in 72.2% of the colleges. Cobalt–chromium alloy is used in 94.4% of the colleges for the framework. A set protocol for postinsertion adjustment visits is followed in 94.4% of the colleges. Conclusions: Dental colleges of Saudi Arabia have similar standards of removable partial denture education at the undergraduate level, with variations in a few aspects. Removable partial denture teaching programs of Saudi Arabian dental colleges are comparable to similar programs in dental schools of the United States and Turkey.
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Evaluation of antibacterial properties of organic gutta-percha solvents and synthetic solvents against Enterococcus faecalis
Rahul Maria, Smita D Dutta, Sanjay G Thete, Mustafa Hussein AlAttas
March-April 2021, 11(2):179-183
Background: The use of solvents is necessary to remove remnants of filling materials within dentinal tubules to allow penetration of irrigating solution within the tubules. Aim and Objectives: We aimed at determining the antibacterial effect of various gutta-percha (GP) solvents against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted by measuring the zone of inhibition using the disk diffusion method. The test organism used for the study was E. faecalis, and the solvents were divided into five groups: eucalyptus oil, chloroform, turpentine oil, xylene, and orange oil. About 500 μL of the suspension was spread over the agar plates, and the empty sterilized disks were impregnated with 10 μL of pure essential oils (EOs). The inoculated plates were incubated at 37°C for 18 to 24 h. The antimicrobial activity of each solvent was expressed and measured in terms of the mean diameter of the zone of inhibition (in mm) produced by each solvent at the end of the incubation period. ANOVA was used for intergroup comparison. The P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean zone of inhibition for E. faecalis was 24.00 ± 1.21 for eucalyptus oil, 16.30 ± 0.92 for chloroform, 26.50 ± 1.24 for turpentine oil, 13.70 ± 1.26 for xylene, and 19.80 ± 1.32 for orange oil. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the use of turpentine oil during endodontic retreatment significantly reduced the levels of E. faecalis as compared with other solvents.
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The relationships among oral health practices, early childhood caries, and oral health-related quality of life in Indonesian preschool children: A cross-sectional study
Atik Ramadhani, Safira Khairinisa, Febriana Setiawati, Risqa R Darwita, Diah A Maharani
March-April 2021, 11(2):158-165
Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the relationships among oral health practices, early childhood caries (ECC), and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in five-year-old children in Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Overall, 266 parent–child pairs (PCPs) from preschools in Jakarta participated in a cross-sectional study. The ECC was clinically assessed by two calibrated screeners using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) and the pufa index, which records the presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement (p), ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (u), fistula (f), and abscess (a). The parents of the participating children completed the self-administered questionnaire comprising SOHO-5p and their oral health practices. The SOHO-5c questionnaire was used to interview the children. Results: The prevalence of ECC was 88.7%, with 35% having pufa index scores greater than 0. There were significant relationships among oral health practices, ECC, and the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) scores. There was also a significant relationship between cariogenic food consumption and the dmft and SOHO-5p scores. There was a significant relationship between ECC and the SOHO-5 scores. All the SOHO-5p variables except smile avoidance because of appearance had a significant relationship with the dmft and pufa variables. Eating and sleeping difficulties were significantly related to the dmft and pufa scores. Conclusion: OHRQoL was found to be related to the dmft and pufa scores, and the parents’ perceptions were more strongly correlated than the children’s. No significant difference was found in the perceptions indicated by the SOHO-5p and SOHO-5c scores. This suggests that parents can be used as proxies regarding their children’s OHRQoL.
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Accuracy between functional swallowing and Knebelman craniometric method to measure occlusal vertical dimension in total denture wearers: A quasi-experimental study
Juan Huamani, Romel Watanabe, Jose Huamani, Doris Salcedo-Moncada, Daniel Alvitez-Temoche, Frank Mayta-Tovalino
March-April 2021, 11(2):152-157
Objective: The objective was to determine the accuracy between functional swallowing (FS) and the Knebelman craniometric method (KCM) to measure occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) in total denture wearers. Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental, prospective study was conducted considering the KCM diagnostic method as the gold standard compared to FS. All the totally edentulous patients attended at the School of Dentistry of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (n = 32) in 2018–2019 were evaluated. Previous informed consent was obtained from all patients. A Knebelman’s Craniometer was used to obtain longitudinal measurements measured in millimeters. The measurement was made with the Knebelman Craniometer by placing the tip into the external auditory canal inside the right meatus. On the other hand, for the FS method, the patients were seated comfortably with their back supported and their head in a natural position. Both upper and lower rollers were inserted into the mouth and the patient was instructed to swallow saliva for a period of 5min. Results: When comparing the measurement of the OVD of KCM versus FS according to sex, men presented an OVD of 68.1 ± 3.9 mm, being 64.1 ± 3.8 mm in women. Accuracy was evaluated with an analysis of concordance between FS and the KCM in the determination of OVD in totally edentulous patients with a value of 0.97 (confidence interval = 0.31–0.99) (P = 0.013). Conclusions: There is a good concordance between the FS method and the KCM at the time of determining the OVD of edentulous patients using total prostheses.
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Effects of different light-curing modes on the compressive strengths of nanohybrid resin-based composites: A comparative in vitro study
Franco Mauricio, Julia Medina, Luzmila Vilchez, Oscar Sotomayor, César Muricio-Vilchez, Frank Mayta-Tovalino
March-April 2021, 11(2):184-189
Objective: To evaluate the effects of polymerization conducted by using LED lamps of different wavelengths (polywave and monowave) on the compressive strengths of nanohybrid composite resins Filtek™ Bulk Fill - 3M and 3M™ Filtek™ Z350 XT. Materials and Methods: The study was prospective, experimental in vitro, and comparative. The sample consisted of nanohybrid composite resins. The sample size (n) was 100 specimens, divided into 10 groups. CRIS (Checklist for Reporting In-vitro Studies) Guidelines were used for writing this article. Results: There were statistically significant differences between all groups with P < 0.001. Group 2 (nanohybrid composite resin blocks 3M™ Filtek™ Z350 XT with Monowave LED lamps) showed the highest compressive strength of 238.36±34.69N; CI (213.55–263.18) N. This was followed by Group 4 (nanohybrid composite resin blocks 3M™ Filtek™ Z350 XT with Poliwave LED lamps, High Power) and Group 6 (nanohybrid composite resin blocks 3M™ Filtek™ Z350 XT with Poliwave LED lamps, Soft Star), with compressive strengths of 222.33 ± 53.09N, and 209.21 ± 22.52N, respectively. Conclusions: Significant differences were found between the compressive strengths of 3M™ Filtek™ Z350 XT and Filtek™ Bulk Fill - 3M resins, and that of resins photopolymerized with monowave and polywave LED lamps and halogen light. Thus, the types of light and lamp directly influence the compressive strengths of the composite resins.
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Comparative study of oral health education given by a dentist and schoolteachers in Thai Grade 3 students
Wannakorn Sriarj, Pattarin Potisomporn, Waleerat Sukarawan
March-April 2021, 11(2):198-206
Objectives: To compare children’s knowledge and attitudes toward oral health (OH) and plaque score after receiving OH education (OHE) from a dentist or trained schoolteachers. Materials and Methods: Third-grade students in Amphoe Meuang, Nakhon Phanom, Thailand (n = 652), were randomly divided into a dentist group (n = 217), a teacher group (n = 216), and a control group (n = 219). The students’ OH knowledge, attitudes, and plaque scores before the intervention were collected as baseline data. The dentist and the teacher groups received additional OH education sessions by a dentist and trained schoolteachers, respectively. Their immediate post-test knowledge was evaluated after each session, and plaque scores were determined after the brushing session. All groups continued a monthly tooth brushing activity for two months. The final assessment was done at the three-month follow-up. Results: The students who received additional OHE by either a dentist or teacher demonstrated improved knowledge and attitudes towards OH, including plaque score. Interestingly, at the three-month follow-up, the knowledge score in the teacher group was significantly higher than in the dentist group. However, the dentist group had a significantly lower plaque score compared with the teacher group. Conclusions: Additional OHE in school significantly improved students’ OH knowledge and positive attitudes regardless of the provider. However, the teacher tends to have a greater impact on their students; thus after appropriate training, schoolteachers can be efficient OH educators, especially in the long term.
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Prevalence and correlates of dental service utilization among adults in solomon islands
Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer
March-April 2021, 11(2):166-172
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess dental service utilization (DSU) among adults in a Pacific Island country. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional nationally representative survey in Solomon Islands, 2,533 individuals (18–69 years) responded to questions on DSU, sociodemographic and health information in 2015. Results: More than half of the participants (55.3%) never had DSU, 36.4% had more than 12 months DSU, and 8.3% had past 12 months DSU. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis, older age, ever screened for blood pressure, using toothpaste, and having had pain in teeth, gum, or mouth in the past year were associated with both >12 months and past 12 months DSU. Higher education, ever screened for cholesterol, being divorced, separated, or widowed, poor self-rated oral health (SROH), and experienced difficulty in chewing foods in the past 12 months were associated with >12 months or past 12 months DSU. High physical activity was negatively associated with >12 months DSU. Conclusion: Less than one in ten participants had past 12 months DSU and several factors were found, which can be targeted in interventions.
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Effect of polishing on the surface microhardness of nanohybrid composite resins subjected to 35% hydrogen peroxide: An in vitro study
Giovanna Gisella Ramírez-Vargas, Julia Elbia Medina y Mendoza, Ana Sixtina Aliaga-Mariñas, Marysela Irene Ladera-Castañeda, Luis Adolfo Cervantes-Ganoza, César Félix Cayo-Rojas
March-April 2021, 11(2):216-221
Aim: The use of bleaching agents, despite being a conservative treatment, can cause a decrease in the surface microhardness of dental resins, affecting their aesthetics and performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of polishing on the surface microhardness of nanohybrid composite resins that were subjected to bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, in vitro experimental study consisted of 30 composite resin samples made according to ISO 4049-2019 and divided equally into two groups (A and B) which were subjected to 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Group A was subjected to polishing procedure, whereas group B was the control group. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h. The Vickers microhardness was determined with a load of 100 g-f for 10 s. The data were analyzed with Student’s t-test for independent samples at a confidence level of 95%. Results: The surface microhardness of the group that was subjected to polishing (A) obtained a mean of 78.07 ± 7.96 HV, whereas for the group that was not subjected to polishing (B) the mean was 65.67 ± 5.22 HV. The difference between groups (A and B) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Nanohybrid composite resins previously subjected to 35% hydrogen peroxide gel significantly increased their surface microhardness when subjected to polishing when compared with unpolished nanohybrid composite resins.
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Cephalometric characteristics in skulls with artificial deformation in a pre-Columbian civilization of the Peruvian Andes (Chavin civilization 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.)
Fernando Pérez-Vargas, Ricardo Terukina, Ana Diaz-Soriano, Alonso Lama, Daniel Blanco, Frank Mayta-Tovalino
March-April 2021, 11(2):190-197
Objective: To evaluate the cephalometric characteristics of skulls with and without artificial deformation in a pre-Columbian civilization of the Peruvian Andes (Chavin civilization 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.). Materials and Methods: The study was observational, analytical, retrospective, and comparative in design. The image analysis unit was radiological with cephalometric measurement. The sample consisted of occipito-frontal dry skulls of the Chavín culture (n = 40) with and without artifical deformation, which underwent cephalometric radiography for analysis. Results: The measurements of skull base size, anterior cranial base size, posterior cranial base size, posterior cranial base size, and cranial deflection were greater in the deformed than the non-deformed skulls (95.1 ± 6.6 vs. 92.3 ± 6.2 mm, 61.5 ± 3.6 vs. 61.4 ± 3.6 mm, 39.8 ± 3.4 vs. 38.1 ± 3.5 mm, 136 ± 26.9 vs. 135.0 ± 5.6 mm, and 35.7 ± 31.8 vs. 28.2 ± 14.6 mm, respectively). Significant differences were only found in the posterior cranial base size measurements between deformed and nondeformed skulls (P = 0.008). When comparing the characteristics of the skulls, significant differences were only found between the position of the posterior nasal spine and the maxilla size of the deformed versus the non-deformed skulls (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It is concluded that there are differences in the size, position, and inclination of the craniofacial structures between the artificially deformed skulls and the skulls that have not been artificially deformed by the old Chavin civilization.
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