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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 4: Smoking as a risk factor for NCDs and PD. CA = carcinoma, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVD = cardiovascular disease, GCF = gingival crevicular fluid, MMP = matrix metalloproteinase, NCD = noncommunicable disease, OPG = osteoprotegerin, PD = periodontal disease, ROS = reactive oxygen species, TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor alpha

Figure 4: Smoking as a risk factor for NCDs and PD. CA = carcinoma, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVD = cardiovascular disease, GCF = gingival crevicular fluid, MMP = matrix metalloproteinase, NCD = noncommunicable disease, OPG = osteoprotegerin, PD = periodontal disease, ROS = reactive oxygen species, TNF-α = tumor necrosis factor alpha